Research| SDG3

GOOD HEALTH & WELL-BEING: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

Total number of research : 103 Publications

Khoo L.W., Kow A.S.F., Maulidiani M., Ang M.Y., Chew W.Y., Lee M.T., Tan C.P., Shaari K., Tham C.L., Abas F.(2019)

Introduction: Clinacanthus nutans, a small shrub that is native to Southeast Asia, is commonly used in traditional herbal medicine and as a food source. Its anti-inflammation properties is influenced by the metabolites composition, which can be determined by different binary extraction solvent ratio and extraction methods used during plant post-harvesting stage. Objective: Evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition of C. nutans and its anti-inflammatory properties using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach. Methodology: The anti-inflammatory effect of C. nutans air-dried leaves extracted using five different binary extraction solvent ratio and two extraction methods was determined based on their nitric oxide (NO) inhibition effect in lipopolysaccharide-interferon-gamma (LPS-IFN-γ) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The relationship between extract bioactivity and metabolite profiles and quantifications were established using 1H-NMR metabolomics and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). The possible metabolite biosynthesis pathway was constructed to further strengthen the findings. Results: Water and sonication prepared air-dried leaves possessed the highest NO inhibition activity (IC50 = 190.43 ± 12.26 μg/mL, P < 0.05). A total of 56 metabolites were tentatively identified using 1H-NMR metabolomics. A partial least square (PLS) biplot suggested that sulphur containing glucoside, sulphur containing compounds, phytosterols, triterpenoids, flavones and some organic and amino acids were among the potential NO inhibitors. LC–MS/MS targeted quantification further supported sonicated water extract was among the extract that possessed the most abundant C-glycosyl flavones. Conclusion: The present study may serve as a preliminary reference for the selection of optimum extract in further C. nutans in vivo anti-inflammatory study. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

[Full Article]

Schwalm J.-D., McCready T., Lopez-Jaramillo P., Yusoff K., Attaran A., Lamelas P., Camacho P.A., Majid F., Bangdiwala S.I., Thabane L., Islam S., McKee M., Yusuf S.(2019)

Background: Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease globally. Despite proven benefits, hypertension control is poor. We hypothesised that a comprehensive approach to lowering blood pressure and other risk factors, informed by detailed analysis of local barriers, would be superior to usual care in individuals with poorly controlled or newly diagnosed hypertension. We tested whether a model of care involving non-physician health workers (NPHWs), primary care physicians, family, and the provision of effective medications, could substantially reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Methods: HOPE 4 was an open, community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 1371 individuals with new or poorly controlled hypertension from 30 communities (defined as townships) in Colombia and Malaysia. 16 communities were randomly assigned to control (usual care, n=727), and 14 (n=644) to the intervention. After community screening, the intervention included treatment of cardiovascular disease risk factors by NPHWs using tablet computer-based simplified management algorithms and counselling programmes; free antihypertensive and statin medications recommended by NPHWs but supervised by physicians; and support from a family member or friend (treatment supporter) to improve adherence to medications and healthy behaviours. The primary outcome was the change in Framingham Risk Score 10-year cardiovascular disease risk estimate at 12 months between intervention and control participants. The HOPE 4 trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01826019. Findings: All communities completed 12-month follow-up (data on 97% of living participants, n=1299). The reduction in Framingham Risk Score for 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was −6·40% (95% CI 8·00 to −4·80) in the control group and −11·17% (−12·88 to −9·47) in the intervention group, with a difference of change of −4·78% (95% CI −7·11 to −2·44, p<0·0001). There was an absolute 11·45 mm Hg (95% CI −14·94 to −7·97) greater reduction in systolic blood pressure, and a 0·41 mmol/L (95% CI −0·60 to −0·23) reduction in LDL with the intervention group (both p<0·0001). Change in blood pressure control status (<140 mm Hg) was 69% in the intervention group versus 30% in the control group (p<0·0001). There were no safety concerns with the intervention. Interpretation: A comprehensive model of care led by NPHWs, involving primary care physicians and family that was informed by local context, substantially improved blood pressure control and cardiovascular disease risk. This strategy is effective, pragmatic, and has the potential to substantially reduce cardiovascular disease compared with current strategies that are typically physician based. Funding: Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Grand Challenges Canada; Ontario SPOR Support Unit and the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; Boehringer Ingelheim; Department of Management of Non-Communicable Diseases, WHO; and Population Health Research Institute. Video Abstract: © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

[Full Article]

Leong L.-Y., Hew T.-S., Ooi K.-B., Lee V.-H., Hew J.-J.(2019)

Social media has been a phenomenon but it is a double-edge sword that can bring about negative effects such as social media addiction. Nevertheless, very less attention has been given in unveiling the determinants of social media addiction. In this study, artificial intelligence and expert systems were applied through a hybrid SEM-artificial neural network approach to predict social media addiction. An integrated model of the Big Five Model and Uses and Gratification Theory was validated based on a sample of 615 Facebook users. Unlike existing social media studies that used SEM, in this study, we engaged a hybrid SEM-ANN approach with IPMA as the additional analysis. The new SEM-IPMA-ANN analysis is a novel methodological contribution where useful conclusion can be drawn based on not only the construct's importance but also its performance in prioritizing managerial actions. Primary focus will be given in improving the performance of constructs that exhibit huge importance with relatively low performance. Based on the normalized importance of the ANN analysis using multilayer perceptrons with feed-forward-back propagation algorithm, we found nonlinear relationships between neuroticism and social media addiction. This is a significant finding as previously only linear relationships were found. In addition, entertainment is the strongest predictor followed by agreeableness, neuroticism, hours spent and gender. The artificial neural network is able to predict social media addiction with an 86.67% accuracy. The new methodology and findings from the study will give huge impacts to the extant literature of expert systems and artificial intelligence generally and social media addiction specifically. We discussed the methodological, theoretical and practical contributions of the study. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

[Full Article]

Mohammed A.A., Ambak K., Mosa A.M., Syamsunur D.(2019)

A traffic accident, a traffic collision or crash occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road barriers, or any stationary obstruction such as a tree or a utility pole. Traffic collisions may result in injury, death, vehicle damage and possession damage. Motor vehicle collisions cause death and disability as well as a financial burden. Traffic accidents cause many losses especially of human life, property damages, and loss of resources. Indeed, even in strife influenced countries such as Afghanistan, Libya, Pakistan, and Yemen, road traffic remains the most common cause of fatal injuries, causing between two and eight times more fatalities than war and lawful mediation. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 assessed the traffic casualty rate in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) to be the second most elevated rate universally after the African Region and extending a few other countries in the region. The aim of this paper was to enrich the global highway safety knowledge by revealing the catastrophic impact of traffic accidents on the economy of the societies and the safety of the common worldwide. © 2019 Mohammed et al.

[Full Article]

Chan E.W.C., Wong S.K., Tangah J., Inoue T., Chan H.T.(2019)

Flavones are the most dominant type of flavonoids isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis (Radix Scutellariae), which is a traditional medicinal plant in East Asian countries, including China, Japan and Korea. Most of the flavones are derivatives with methoxyl and hydroxyl groups, and they include baicalein, baicalin, chrysin, norwogonin, oroxylin A and wogonin. Baicalein possesses anti-cancer activities against a wide spectrum of human cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and by inhibiting angiogenesis, metastasis and inflammation. Some examples of the effects of baicalein on apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and metastasis are presented with discussion on the molecular targets and pathways. Studies on the structure-activity relationships of flavonoid cytotoxicity towards human cancer cells show that the potent cytotoxic activities of baicalein can be attributed to its -OH groupsat C5, C6 and C7 (triple hydroxylation) of ring A, carbonyl group at C4 of ring C, and C2-C3 double bond of ring C. Studies on structural modifications of baicalein have shown that the configurations at C6 of ring A are critical factors influencing its anti-proliferative activity. Considering the remarkable anti-cancer properties, the future prospects for developing baicalein into an anti-cancer drug are promising. © 2019 Journal of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University.

[Full Article]

Khalidi S.A.M., Sabullah M.K., Sani S.A., Ahmad S.A., Shukor M.Y., Jaafar 'I.N.M., Gunasekaran B.(2019)

Overwhelming amount of heavy metals discharged due to industrialization is a serious global concern. Thus, an investigation was done on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Asian swamp eel, Monopterus albus, as an alternative biosensor to detect various metal ions. AChE from the brain of M. albus was purified through ammonium sulphate precipitation and procainamide affinity chromatography. Enzyme recovery was obtained at 38.73% with the specific activity of 1847 U μg-1. The Michaelis constant (Km) value and maximal velocity (Vmax) were determined at 8.910 mM and 29.44 μmol min-1 mg-1, respectively for acetylthiocholine iodide (ATC). Based on effective coefficient ratio, AChE from M. albus brain showed higher affinity to ATC compared to butyrylthiocholine iodide (BTC) and propionylthiocholine iodide (PTC) at the value of 3.304, 1.515, 2.965 Vmax.Km-1 respectively. Optimum activity of AChE was obtained at 40°C and incubated in 0.1M Tris HCl buffer pH 9.0. Inhibition study performed on 10 heavy metals resulted in this descending order of inhibition mercury<chromium<zinc<copper<arsenic<silver<cobalt<cadmium<lead<nickel, with mercury and chromium showing more than 50% inhibition at 10 ppm. Data from this study can be further utilized to develop a cheaper, easier, and faster heavy metal detection method as compared to conventional methods available. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

[Full Article]

Lim X.-E., Lai K.-S., Liew H.-J., Loh J.-Y.(2019)

Copepods are one of the most important primary producers and biodiversity indicators. They are also highly susceptible to various toxicants. In this study, glyphosate (Roundup®), a widely used herbicide was used to investigate the toxicity effect on calanoid copepods, Pseudodiaptomus annandalei, focused on their nauplius, copepodid, and adult stages. Different concentrations of glyphosate (i.e. 0-as control, 0.05, 0.1, 0.4, 1.6, 6.4 and 25.6 mg/L) were used to elucidate the tolerance level of P. annandalei. The survival rate of copepod was recorded at the intervals of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after glyphosate exposure. The analysis was performed using probit test to determine the sub-lethal concentrations. Our results revealed that LC50 of the nauplius stage was recorded as 3.47, 3.02, 1.86 and 1.10 mg/L at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Higher LC50 values were recorded at 4.36 mg/L for 24 h, 3.09 mg/L for 48 h, 2.00 mg/L for 72 h, and 1.12 mg/L for 96 h at the copepodid stage. Generally, adult copepods showed a higher level of tolerance to glyphosate among all stages, whereby at this stage LC50 values were recorded as 11.70 mg/L for 24 h,10.23 mg/L for 48 h, 7.41 mg/L for 72 h, and 3.61 mg/L for 96 h, respectively. Our results indicated that prolong exposure time of glyphosate could increase the susceptibility of P. annandalei to the herbicide. Nauplii are the most sensitive group among all. This study showed that glyphosate could post significant eco-toxicological impact to the non-targeted organism. © 2019, University of Malaya. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Deng L., Lou H., Zhang X., Thiruvahindrapuram B., Lu D., Marshall C.R., Liu C., Xie B., Xu W., Wong L.-P., Yew C.-W., Farhang A., Ong R.T.-H., Hoque M.Z., Thuhairah A.R., Jong B., Phipps M.E., Scherer S.W., Teo Y.-Y., Kumar S.V., Hoh B.-P., Xu S.(2019)

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in genomic technologies have facilitated genome-wide investigation of human genetic variations. However, most efforts have focused on the major populations, yet trio genomes of indigenous populations from Southeast Asia have been under-investigated. RESULTS: We analyzed the whole-genome deep sequencing data (~ 30×) of five native trios from Peninsular Malaysia and North Borneo, and characterized the genomic variants, including single nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions and deletions (indels) and copy number variants (CNVs). We discovered approximately 6.9 million SNVs, 1.2 million indels, and 9000 CNVs in the 15 samples, of which 2.7% SNVs, 2.3% indels and 22% CNVs were novel, implying the insufficient coverage of population diversity in existing databases. We identified a higher proportion of novel variants in the Orang Asli (OA) samples, i.e., the indigenous people from Peninsular Malaysia, than that of the North Bornean (NB) samples, likely due to more complex demographic history and long-time isolation of the OA groups. We used the pedigree information to identify de novo variants and estimated the autosomal mutation rates to be 0.81 × 10- 8 - 1.33 × 10- 8, 1.0 × 10- 9 - 2.9 × 10- 9, and ~ 0.001 per site per generation for SNVs, indels, and CNVs, respectively. The trio-genomes also allowed for haplotype phasing with high accuracy, which serves as references to the future genomic studies of OA and NB populations. In addition, high-frequency inherited CNVs specific to OA or NB were identified. One example is a 50-kb duplication in DEFA1B detected only in the Negrito trios, implying plausible effects on host defense against the exposure of diverse microbial in tropical rainforest environment of these hunter-gatherers. The CNVs shared between OA and NB groups were much fewer than those specific to each group. Nevertheless, we identified a 142-kb duplication in AMY1A in all the 15 samples, and this gene is associated with the high-starch diet. Moreover, novel insertions shared with archaic hominids were identified in our samples. CONCLUSION: Our study presents a full catalogue of the genome variants of the native Malaysian populations, which is a complement of the genome diversity in Southeast Asians. It implies specific population history of the native inhabitants, and demonstrated the necessity of more genome sequencing efforts on the multi-ethnic native groups of Malaysia and Southeast Asia.

[Full Article]

Wai C.K., Bond T.Y., Lin N.K., Phing P.L.(2019)

The chitosan (CH) films incorporated with different concentrations (1% to 5%) of musk lime extracts (MLE) were investigated for physical, mechanical, chemical, and antibacterial properties. Storage test on squids’ shelf-life was also conducted. The addition of MLE into CH film had increased the inhibition zones against gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. It also reduced the moisture content, water solubility, tensile strength and elongation at break. Films with higher concentration of MLE had higher intensity in opacity and appeared more greenish. From the Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectra, the addition of 4% and 5% of MLE in CH films shifted the-CH3 stretching at peak 2921 cm-1 and the signal of the hydrophilic representative zones (-OH and –NH stretch, amide II and carboxyl group) were slightly reduced at 3200 cm-1, 1570 cm-1 and 1400 cm-1, respectively. The FTIR results did not suggest any cross-linkage between the MLE and CH. At 4 °C storage condition, wrapping the squids with MLE incorporated films had prolonged their shelf-life from 5 days to 15 days compared to wrapping with neat CH film. © 2019, Malaysian Society of Analytical Sciences. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Kho K., Sim Y.Y., Nyam K.L.(2019)

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is a fast-growing herbaceous plant that received great attention in Malaysia as a valuable fibre crop. Yet, different maturity of plants’ leaves could affect the antioxidant capacities of the tea prepared. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the physical properties of KR9 kenaf leaves and antioxidant activities of tea prepared from KR9 kenaf leaves at four different maturity stages, which were 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after sowing (DAS). The analysis that carried out were DPPH (2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay, ABTS (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, total phenolic content assay, total flavonoid content assay, and chromatographic analysis of phenolic compounds. Results demonstrated that the kenaf leaves at 150 DAS were able to retain the most colour after drying. It also revealed that the tea prepared from kenaf leaves at 120 DAS showed the highest antioxidant activity in all antioxidant analysis tested. Kenaf leaves tea contained mainly kaempferol, tannic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and catechin hydrate. Hence, it was deduced that the antioxidant activity in kenaf leaves increased until 120 DAS and dropped at 150 DAS. There was a strong positive correlation relationship among all the antioxidant analysis and the phenolic compounds presented in the kenaf leaves tea. Thus, the phenolic compounds detected contributed significantly to the antioxidant activities of the kenaf leaves tea. The 120 DAS kenaf leaves was recommended for tea preparation since it possessed high antioxidant activities. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

[Full Article]

Choi W.C., Hon W.M., Mohamad M., Kok A.K.D.X., Lai K.S., Yap W.S.(2019)

Palm kernel cake (PKC) is a by-product obtained from the production of edible oils using oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). PKC is well-known for its high protein content, therefore, it was chosen as the target of this research to study its antioxidant properties, which is an important criteria in cosmeceutical industry. Our studies showed that, the extraction of crude protein at 80°C resulted in the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and protein yield. It was further seen that precipitation using 80% cold ethanol following protein extraction at 80°C gave the best protein yield of 56.6%. The antioxidative activity of this precipitated protein was expressed as IC50 for 1-diphenyl 1-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity (517±0.016 mg ml-1), 2, 2'-azino-bisC3-ethylbenzothia zoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity (0.047±0.009 mg ml-1) and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) ability (21±0.13 mg ml-1). Meanwhile, the reducing power and TPC were 0.156±0.006 trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) mmol g-1 dry weight (DW) and 25.10±0.58 gallic acid equivalent (GAE) μg g-1 DW respectively. The Pearson correlation test further revealed a significantly moderate to strong positive relationships between antioxidant properties with protein content and antioxidant properties with TPC. Taken together, both, the crude and precipitated protein obtained from PKC showed substantial amount of antioxidative activities, which could be used as sustainable source of antioxidant peptides in enhancing the quality of cosmeceutical products. © 2019 Lembaga Minyak Sawit Malaysia. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Kayarohanam S., Subramaniyan V., Janakiraman A.K., Madhan Kumar S.J.(2019)

Aim: To investigate the antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic activities of Dolichandrone atrovirens in albino wistar rats. Methods and Material: Bark and leaf part of Dolichandrone atrovirens were extracted with water and methanol. Swiss albino wistar rats were used to evaluate the in vivo effects of streptozotocin induced body weight loss, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Statistical analysis: Data were analysed by One - way ANOVA, followed by Turkey –Kramer Multiple Comparison Test. Results: Dolichandrone atrovirens extract treated animals demonstrated significant increase in body weight, decreased blood glucose levels, glycosylated haemoglobin and changes in other biochemical parameters levels when compared to diabetic control rats. © RJPT All right reserved.

[Full Article]

Jiaying L., Mohammad A., Keshavarzi F., Bheemavarapu H.(2019)

Introduction: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide after breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Though the vaccine for cervical cancer is available in Malaysia since 2010, yet the cancer rate among Malaysian women was recorded high. The present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and barriers towards cervical cancer vaccination among Malaysian women. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the Klang Valley of greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. Results: Out of 392 respondents, a majority (n = 376, 95.9%) have heard about cervical cancer. The results show that most of the participants had good knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer vaccination. With respect to the knowledge of the participants, a greater proportion of them (n = 355, 90.6%) agreed that human papilloma vaccination can prevent cervical cancer. A majority (n = 373, 95.2%) of them also agreed that they will get the vaccine if their physician recommends. Despite the higher knowledge and attitude of the Malaysian women towards the cervical cancer vaccination, they are poor in practice as only (n = 151, 38.5%) participants of this study have received the free cervical cancer vaccine. Moreover, only 70.1% (n = 106) of those who were previously vaccinated have received the complete course of 3-doses of the vaccine. In respect of barriers to the vaccination, most of the participants (n = 186, 77.1%) were concerned about the price of vaccine followed by the unacceptance of vaccine by their family members and friends (n = 214, 88.7%). Conclusion: Our study results found some crucial gaps in the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Malaysian women towards cervical cancer vaccination. The Malaysian government must emphasize on an outcome-based educational effort to encourage women to receive the vaccination irrespective of their age. Moreover, the health-care providers and social organizations must contribute to the efforts of government in bringing about a positive attitudinal change in the minds of Malaysian women helping them realize the importance of using HPV vaccine to prevent cervical cancer. © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS

[Full Article]

Arief M., Ying L.(2019)

Cervical cancer vaccination of adolescent girl effectively reduces the risk of developing precancerous lesions caused by the causative agent, Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of female cancer in Malaysia despite the availability of HPV vaccine. This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of Malaysian Women towards cervical cancer vaccination. A cross sectional study was carried out through convenience and purposive sampling method. English literate women with Malaysian citizenship above the age of 18 years old are included into the study. Based on Krejcie and Morgan calculation, a sample size of 384 women is required.(1) Potential women participants were recruited randomly at Klang Valley (which includes Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Selangor districts of Petaling, Klang, Gombak, Hulu Langat) via a self-administered questionnaire that had been validated and pre-tested among 20 women to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. The study result showed that 94.6% of the participants showed good knowledge towards HPV vaccine. On the other hand, the overall attitude and practice level is found to be poor, reported to be 53.1% and 65.1% respectively. © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reseved.

[Full Article]

Yap R.W.K., Lin M.-H., Shidoji Y., Yap W.S.(2019)

Female adults in Malaysia are prone to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mental health problems. Significant associations of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) gene rs2071559 polymorphism were reported in Asian populations. This study aimed to examine the association and interaction effects of VEGFR-2 gene rs2071559 polymorphism with mental health on metabolic risk factors of CVD in Chinese Malaysian female adults. Physical measurements: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), blood pressure; and biomarkers: blood glucose (BG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined. Job Stress Scale (JSS), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and Rhode Island Stress and Coping Inventory (RISCI) questionnaires were used to measure job stress, mental health (stress, anxiety and depression), and coping with perceived stress. A total of 81 Chinese Malaysian female adults were included. The allele frequency for rs2071559 (C; T allele) was 0.41; 0.59, and significant genetic association was obtained with HbA1c levels (p=0.034) after adjusting for potential confounders. Significant correlations were obtained for stress with BMI (r=-0.022; p=0.046), depression with BFP (r=-0.242; p=0.030); and stress coping with BG (r=0.303; p=0.006). Significant gene-environment interaction effects were obtained for rs2071559 with stress (p=0.015) and depression (p=0.038) on HDL-C levels. Significant associations and interaction effects of rs2071559 polymorphism and mental health were obtained for metabolic risk factors of CVD in Chinese Malaysian female adults. Further investigation to confirm the findings is required, including promotion of healthy mental health in prevention of CVD including metabolic risk factors. © 2019 Malaysian Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Mitra S.R., Tan P.Y., Amini F.(2019)

Gene-diet interaction studies have reported that individual variations in phenotypic traits may be due to variations in individual diet. Our study aimed to evaluate (i) the association of ADRB2 rs1042713 with obesity and obesity-related metabolic parameters and (ii) the effect of dietary nutrients on these associations in Malaysian adults. ADRB2 genotyping, dietary, physical activity, anthropometric, and biochemical data were collected from 79 obese and 99 nonobese individuals. Logistic regression revealed no association between ADRB2 rs1042713 and obesity (p=0.725). However, the carriers of G allele (AG + GG genotypes) of rs1042713 were associated with increased odds of insulin resistance, 2.83 (CI = 1.04-7.70, adjusted p=0.042), in the dominant model, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Obese individuals carrying the G allele were associated with higher total cholesterol (p=0.011), LDL cholesterol levels (p=0.008), and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (p=0.048), compared to the noncarriers (AA), even after adjusting for potential confounders. Irrespective of obesity, the carriers of GG genotype had significantly lower fasting glucose levels with low saturated fatty acid intake (<7.3% of TE/day) (4.92 ± 0.1 mmol/L vs 5.80 ± 0.3 mmol/L, p=0.011) and high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio (≥0.8/day) (4.83 ± 0.1 mmol/L vs 5.93 ± 0.4 mmol/L, p=0.006). Moreover, the carriers of GG genotype with high polyunsaturated fatty acid intake (≥6% of TE/day) had significantly lower HOMA-IR (1.5 ± 0.3 vs 3.0 ± 0.7, p=0.026) and fasting insulin levels (6.8 ± 1.6 μU/mL vs 11.4 ± 2.1 μU/mL, p=0.036). These effects were not found in the noncarriers (AA). In conclusion, G allele carriers of ADRB2 rs1042713 were associated with increased odds of insulin resistance. Obese individuals carrying G allele were compromised with higher blood lipid levels. Although it is premature to report gene-diet interaction on the regulation of glucose and insulin levels in Malaysians, we suggest that higher quantity of PUFA-rich food sources in regular diet may benefit overweight and obese Malaysian adults metabolically. Large-scale studies are required to replicate and confirm the current findings in the Malaysian population. © 2019 Soma Roy Mitra et al.

[Full Article]

Wang C., Bangdiwala S.I., Rangarajan S., Lear S.A., AlHabib K.F., Mohan V., Teo K., Poirier P., Tse L.Ah., Liu Z., Rosengren A., Kumar R., Lopez-Jaramillo P., Yusoff K., Monsef N., Krishnapillai V., Ismail N., Seron P., Dans A.L., Kruger L., Yeates K., Le(2019)

Aims To investigate the association of estimated total daily sleep duration and daytime nap duration with deaths and major cardiovascular events. Methods We estimated the durations of total daily sleep and daytime naps based on the amount of time in bed and self- and results reported napping time and examined the associations between them and the composite outcome of deaths and major cardiovascular events in 116 632 participants from seven regions. After a median follow-up of 7.8 years, we recorded 4381 deaths and 4365 major cardiovascular events. It showed both shorter (<_6 h/day) and longer (>8 h/day) estimated total sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome when adjusted for age and sex. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviours and health status, a J-shaped association was observed. Compared with sleeping 6–8 h/day, those who slept <_6 h/day had a non-significant trend for increased risk of the composite outcome [hazard ratio (HR), 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.99–1.20]. As estimated sleep duration increased, we also noticed a significant trend for a greater risk of the composite outcome [HR of 1.05 (0.99–1.12), 1.17 (1.09–1.25), and 1.41 (1.30–1.53) for 8–9 h/day, 9–10 h/day, and >10 h/day, Ptrend < 0.0001, respectively]. The results were similar for each of all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events. Daytime nap duration was associated with an increased risk of the composite events in those with over 6 h of nocturnal sleep duration, but not in shorter nocturnal sleepers (<_6 h). Conclusion Estimated total sleep duration of 6–8 h per day is associated with the lowest risk of deaths and major cardiovascular events. Daytime napping is associated with increased risks of major cardiovascular events and deaths in those with >6 h of nighttime sleep but not in those sleeping <_6 h/night. © The Author(s) 2019. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. VC The Author(s) 2018.

[Full Article]

Yap R.W.K., Lin M.-H., Shidoji Y., Yap W.S.(2019)

Gene-environment (G × E) interactions involving job stress and mental health on risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are minimally explored. This study examined the association and G × E interaction effects of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) gene polymorphisms (rs1870377, rs2071559) on cardiometabolic risk in Chinese Malaysian adults. Questionnaires: Job Stress Scale (JSS); Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21); and Rhode Island Stress and Coping Inventory (RISCI) were used to measure job stress, mental health, and coping with perceived stress. Cardiometabolic risk parameters were evaluated in plasma and genotyping analysis was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The subjects were 127 Chinese Malaysian adults. The allele frequencies for rs1870377 (A allele and T allele) and rs2071557 (A allele and T allele) polymorphisms were 0.48 and 0.52, and 0.37 and 0.63, respectively. Significant correlations include scores from JSS dimensions with blood glucose (BG) (p = 0.025–0.045), DASS-21 dimensions with blood pressure, BMI, and uric acid (p = 0.029–0.047), and RISCI with blood pressure and BG (p = 0.016–0.049). Significant G × E interactions were obtained for: rs1870377 with stress on total cholesterol (p = 0.035), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.019), and apolipoprotein B100 (p = 0.004); and rs2071559 with anxiety on blood pressure (p = 0.006–0.045). The significant G × E interactions prompt actions for managing stress and anxiety for the prevention of CVD. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

[Full Article]

Ng C.M., Badon S.E., Dhivyalosini M., Hamid J.J.M., Rohana A.J., Teoh A.N., Satvinder K.(2019)

Objectives: An optimal gestational weight gain is essential for maternal health and to reduce adverse birth outcomes. Current guidelines to monitor gestational weight gain are based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). However, middle-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is increasingly used as an alternative nutritional status measure for pregnant women. Hence, this study aimed to determine associations of MUAC and pre-pregnancy BMI with gestational weight gain rate among Malaysian pregnant women. Study design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 444 pregnant women (≥20 weeks gestation). Main outcomes measures: Women completed questionnaires on sociodemographic data, maternal characteristics and pre-pregnancy weight. Height, current weight and MUAC were measured at study visit (from 1st February 2016 to 31st January 2017). Results: About a third (34.24%) of pregnant women were overweight or obese prior to pregnancy. MUAC was inversely associated with an inadequate rate of gestational weight gain (OR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.87) as compared to normal gestational weight gain. In contrast, a higher MUAC was associated with a higher odds ratio (OR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.49) of having excessive rate of gestational weight. No associations were found for pre-pregnancy BMI categories for gestational weight gain rate. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that women with low MUAC were more likely to have an inadequate gestational weight gain rate during pregnancy whereas higher MUAC was associated with an excessive gestational weight gain rate. MUAC may be a useful indicator of nutritional status associated with GWG. Routine measurement of MUAC in pregnant women may help health professionals, particularly in middle-income countries, to counsel women about gestational weight gain. © 2019

[Full Article]

Jie J.T.X., Sivapathy S.(2019)

Body dissatisfaction and risk of eating disorder are problems that are continuing to trouble a large proportion of women and a growing number of men. This study aims to determine the relationship between socio-demographic factors (age and gender), body mass index, body dissatisfaction and risk of eating disorder among UCSI university non-science field students. A self-administered questionnaire which contains four sections was used, including background information, anthropometric measurements, Figure Rating Scale and Eating Attitude Test-26. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 375 Malaysian students (48.8% males and 51.2% females) between the age of 17 to 28. In this study, there were no significant differences in gender on age (t = 1.626; p > 0.05) and BMI status (t = 1.813; p > 0.05). Also, there was no significant difference found in the total mean score of EAT-26 (t = -1.927; p > 0.05) between genders. However, a significant difference was found in the dieting subscale (t = -2.694; p < 0.05) in which females scored significantly higher than that of males. On the other hand, body dissatisfaction among female students was showed significantly higher than that of males (t = -9.262; p < 0.001). Aside from that, a positive correlation (r = 0.120; p < 0.05) was found between body dissatisfaction and risk of eating disorder. Thus, more adapted interventional programme and a more in-depth studies relating these factors are crucial in order to correct the body image misperceptions among university students and to decrease the occurrence of risk of eating disorder. © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reseved.

[Full Article]

Sharon H., Elamvazuthi I., Lu C.K., Parasuraman S., Natarajan E.(2019)

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a persistent provocative ailment that effects and decimates the joints of wrist, finger, and feet. If left untreated, one can lose their ability to lead a normal life. RA is the most typical fiery joint inflammation, influencing around 1-2% of the total populace. Throughout the years, soft computing played an important part in helping ailment analysis in doctor's decision process. The main aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of applying machine learning techniques to the analysis of RA characteristics. As a preliminary work, a credible database has been identified to be used for this research. The database has outputs of array temperature values from thermal imaging for the joints of hand. Furthermore, this database which consists of 8 attributes and 32 instances, are used to determine the performance in terms of accuracy for the classification of different algorithms. In this preliminary work, ensemble algorithms such as bagging, AdaBoost and random subspace with base classifier such as random forest and SVM were trained and tested using the assessment criteria such as accuracy, precision, sensitivity and AUC using Weka tool. From the preliminary finding of this paper, it can be concluded that with base classifier SVM, bagging has better classification accuracy over the others and with base classifier random forest Adaboost slightly outperformed other models for rheumatoid arthritis dataset. © 2019 IEEE.

[Full Article]

Cheong P.C.H., Yong Y.S., Fatima A., Ng S.T., Tan C.S., Kong B.H., Tan N.H., Rajarajeswaran J., Fung S.Y.(2019)

A lectin gene from the Tiger Milk Mushroom Lignosus rhinocerus TM02® was successfully cloned and expressed via vector pET28a in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The recombinant lectin, Rhinocelectin, with a predicted molecular mass of 22.8 kDa, was overexpressed in water-soluble form without signal peptide and purified via native affinity chromatography Ni-NTA agarose. Blast protein analysis indicated the lectin to be homologous to jacalin-related plant lectin. In its native form, Rhinocelectin exists as a homo-tetramer predicted with four chains of identical proteins consisting of 11 beta-sheet structures with only one alpha-helix structure. The antiproliferative activity of the Rhinocelectin against human cancer cell lines was concentration dependent and selective. The IC50 values against triple negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and breast cancer MCF-7 are 36.52 ± 13.55 μg mL−1 and 53.11 ± 22.30 μg mL−1, respectively. Rhinocelectin is only mildly cytotoxic against the corresponding human nontumorigenic breast cell line 184B5 with IC50 value at 142.19 ± 36.34 μg mL−1. The IC50 against human lung cancer cell line A549 cells is 46.14 ± 7.42 μg mL−1 while against nontumorigenic lung cell line NL20 is 41.33 ± 7.43 μg mL−1. The standard anticancer drug, Doxorubicin exhibited IC50 values mostly below 1 μg mL−1 for the cell lines tested. Flow cytometry analysis showed the treated breast cancer cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis induced. Rhinocelectin agglutinated rat and rabbit erythrocytes at a minimal concentration of 3.125 μg mL−1 and 6.250 μg mL−1, respectively. © 2019 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

[Full Article]

Ng T.J., Teo M.Y.M., Liew D.S., Effiong P.E., Hwang J.S., Lim C.S.Y., In L.L.A.(2019)

Background. Hydra actinoporin like toxin -1 (HALT-1), is a small 18.5 kDa pore forming toxin derived from Hydra magnipapillata which has been shown to elicit strong haemolytic and cytolytic activity when in contact with cell membranes. Due to its cytotoxic potency, HALT-1 was further investigated for its potential as a toxin moiety candidate in immunotoxin developmental efforts, ideally as a form of targeted therapy against cancer. Methods. In this study, wtHALT-1 (wild type) and its Y110A mutated binding domain counterpart (mHALT-1) were produced and evaluated for their cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on various cancer cell lines. A total of seven different tumour and non-tumour cell lines including HeLa, HepG2, SW-620, MCF-7, CCD841CoN, NHDF and HCT116 were used. Immunofluorescence assays were used to observe membrane binding and localization changes between both HALT-1 recombinant proteins based on 6xHis-tag detection. Result. Based on MTT data, mHALT-1 demonstrated a significant reduction of 82% ± 12.21% in cytotoxic activity across all cell lines after the membrane recognition domain had been mutated in comparison to the wtHALT-1. Annexin V FITC/PI assay data also indicated that HeLa, HepG2 and MCF-7 demonstrated an apoptosis-mediated cell death after being treated with wtHALT-1. Additionally, a notable difference between wtHALT-1 and mHALT-1 binding affinity was clearly observed where emission of green fluorescence along the cell membrane was observed only in wtHALT-1 treated cells. Discussion.These results suggest that mHALT-1 (Y110A) can be potentially developed as a toxin-moiety candidate for the development of future immunotoxins against various human cell-based diseases. © 2019 Ng et al.

[Full Article]

Zulkoffli Z., Shariff T.A.(2019)

In the past couple of decades, progressive research has been done in the medical imaging field to accurately detect brain tumors. This is vital for early treatment and saves time. This report presents a method of automatic detection of brain tumor in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. The proposed algorithm consists of three stages: Image acquisition, pre-processing and post-processing. In image acquisition, a database of brain tumor MRI images is developed with the help of publicly available online sources. The pre-processing stage involves converting the image to grayscale and applying noise filters to enhance the image. In the post-processing stage, k-means clustering algorithm is used to separate the image into four clusters of varying intensity levels. The cluster with the tumor is found and then the tumor is extracted by using morphological and region properties operations. Features like energy, contrast, kurtosis, correlation and homogeneity are found along with the area and perimeter of the tumor and the accuracy of the extraction. These extracted features can be used in the future to more accurately classify brain tumors with the help of neural networks. The proposed method has given good results and accuracy. © 2019 IEEE.

[Full Article]

Ying G.L., Elamvazuthi I., Khan M.K.A.A., Parasuraman S.(2019)

This research paper presents the study on design of arm exoskeleton for stroke rehabilitation purpose. The mechanical design of the exoskeleton focuses on few aspects of the arm exoskeleton which are length and the design of the exoskeleton and motor specification. Besides, the experiment of obtaining surface electromyography (sEMG) signal for repetition training for physiotherapy patient purpose is carried out to observe the difference in amplitude and muscle signal of different subjects (four males and four females) due to the amount of training and the angle of the training. The signals are filtered and the average of the root mean square of the data is compared. © 2018 IEEE.

[Full Article]

Chu C.C., Tan C.P., Nyam K.L.(2019)

Both pumpkin and kenaf seed oil with carnauba wax (CW) and beeswax (BW) are used to develop nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) loaded with Uvinul T150 and Uvinul A Plus Granular for a UV protection formulation. The study aims to optimize the concentration and the type of seed oil in order to develop a stable NLC formulation with high entrapment efficiency, drug loading, antioxidant activities, and UV absorbing properties. The physical properties of the NLCs are analyzed based on the mean particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), long-term storage stability, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). They are also compared for their entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro antioxidant activities, and in vitro UV absorbing properties. The optimized NLC consists of 10% lipid phase and 1% Uvinul T150 and Uvinul A Plus Granular, respectively. It has mean particle size of 238.20 ± 3.61 nm and remains physically stable on storage at both 25 ± 2 and 40 ± 2 °C. Spherical amorphous NLC structure with encapsulated UV filters is observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Besides, it shows high entrapment efficiency (≥95%) for both Uvinul T150 and Uvinul A Plus Granular in addition to its antioxidant activities as indicated by both DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. In addition, the formulation had high UV absorbing properties, showing its potential to be utilized in the formation of sunscreen prototype. Practical Application: The preliminary study on pumpkin and kenaf seed oil shows bioactive potential with high antioxidant activities. The finding of kenaf seed oil-NLC can be applied in the cosmetic industry to produce a wide variety of environmental-friendly products with improved stability and beneficial properties. Also, the application of technology by forming NLCs can be used to develop lotions, creams, etc., with multifunctional properties. Besides, NLCs as carriers for UV filters is proven in the present study to exhibit high entrapment efficiency and drug loading properties. This is beneficial in developing advanced cosmetic prototypes that possess broad spectrum effectiveness with fewer side effects. Nanostructure lipid carriers (NLCs) are applied to encapsulate UV filters with pumpkin and kenaf seed oils. Kenaf seed oil-NLC (F7) is selected as the best formulation for UV filters encapsulation. With spherical amorphous NLC structure, it shows high entrapment efficiency for the UV filters and antioxidant activities. Results indicate that F7 with high UV absorbing properties remains physically stable upon 12 weeks of storage period. © 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

[Full Article]

Abdullah M.N., Wah Y.B., Zakaria Y., Majeed A.B.A., Huat O.S.(2019)

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder where patients suffer from memory loss, cognitive impairment and progressive disability. Individual blood biomarkers have not been successful in defining the disease pathology, progression and diagnosis of AD. There is a need to identify multiplex panels of blood biomarkers for early diagnosis of AD with high sensitivity and specificity. This study focused on identification of cytokine biomarkers. The maximum likelihood estimates of the ordinary logistic regression model cannot be obtained when there is complete separation and the alternative is Firth logistic regression which uses a penalised Maximum Likelihood in parameter estimation. Methods: This paper reports a Firth logistic regression application in finding potential blood-based cytokine biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease in a matched case control study. We used a principle component analysis to discriminate the correlated, completely separated covariates. Results: The Firth logistic regression results showed that nine individual biomarkers IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-13, IP-10, MCP-1 and MIP-1α had a significant relationshipwith elevated risk for AD as compared to the healthy control (HC). Principal component analysis with varimax rotation for the nine biomarkers revealed four factors (total variance explained=85.5%). The main principal component biomarkers were IL-1β, IL-6, IL-13 and MCP-1 (total variance explained=62.3%). Firth’s logistic regression model with the first principal component had accuracy of 78.2% with sensitivity and specificity of 71.8% and 75% respectively. Conclusion: Firth’s logistic regression is a useful technique in identification of significant biomarkers when there is an issue of data separation. © 2019, Prex S.p.A.. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Manickam B., Sreedharan R., Chidambaram K.(2019)

Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are one of the fascinating unconventional drug delivery systems offering plentiful advantages of which patient compliance is of paramount importance. However, as a matter of fact, the transdermal delivery of drug molecules is absolutely a tedious job which is precisely influenced by a number of factors including penetration barrier properties of the skin, drug characteristics formulation allied issues, etc. Over the years, innumerable tremendous efforts have been made in transporting the drugs through the skin into the systemic circulation by noteworthy tactics. This paper discusses such revolutionary formulation based techniques that have been endeavored in achieving the enhanced skin permeation of drugs, controlled release, and safety. © 2019 Bentham Science Publishers.

[Full Article]

Aljunid S.M., Aung Y.N., Ismail A., Rashid S.A.Z.A., Nur A.M., Cheah J., Matzen P.(2019)

This study mainly aims to identify the direct cost and economic burden of hypoglycemia for patients with type II diabetes mellitus in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study explored the cost incurred for hypoglycemia among patients admitted to University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). The study covered patients aged 20-79 years hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of ICD-10 hypoglycemia and discharged between January 2010 and September 2015 according to the casemix database. A costing analysis was done through a step-down approach from the perspective of health providers. Cost data were collected for three levels of cost centers with the help of a hospital-costing template. The costing data from UKMMC were used to estimate the national burden of hypoglycemia among type II diabetics for the whole country. Of 244 diabetes patients admitted primarily for hypoglycemia to UKMMC, 52% were female and 88% were over 50 years old. The cost increased with severity. Managing a hypoglycemic case requires five days (median) of inpatient stay on average, with a range of 2-26 days, and costs RM 8,949 (USD 2,289). Of the total cost, 30% related to ward (final cost center), 16% to ICU, and 15% to pharmacy (secondary-level cost center) services. Considering that 3.2% of all admissions were hypoglycemia related, the total annual cost of hypoglycemia care for adult diabetics in Malaysia is estimated at RM 117.4 (USD 30.0) million, which translates to 0.5% of the Ministry of Health budget. Hypoglycemia imposes a substantial economic impact even without the direct and indirect cost incurred by patients and other cost of complications. Diabetic management needs to include proper diabetic care and health education to reduce episodes of hypoglycemia. © 2019 Aljunid et al.

[Full Article]

Siang S.C., Wai L.K., Lin N.K., Phing P.L.(2019)

The study aimed to encapsulate Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) with the selected prebiotic, using co-extrusion technology with a poly-L-lysine (PLL) coating and evaluate probiotic survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Selection of ideal prebiotic was conducted using inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) and isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) and its optimal concentration to be incorporated in microencapsulation was determined. Microcapsules without coating (S1: no prebiotic and S3: with prebiotic) and with coating (S2: no prebiotic and S4: with prebiotic) produced were evaluated based on its physical properties and survival in simulated gastrointestinal environment. The IMO with a concentration of 3.0% (w/v) was selected due to its best effect in promoting growth of LGG after 24 h (8.63±0.07 log CFU/mL). The morphology analysis revealed that all microcapsules produced were spherical with a diameter ranging from 491.3 to 541.7 µm and microencapsulation efficiency ranged from 84.16 ±5.30% to 90.56±3.33%. The incorporation of IMO and coating with PLL improved the survival of LGG by 3% up to 52% after 2 h of incubation in simulated gastric digestion. Among all formulations, PLL coated microcapsules added with IMO was the most effective in protecting LGG during the first hour of simulated gastric digestion (6.52 log CFU/mL) with cell viability greater than the minimum recommended level of 106 CFU/mL. © Sociedade Brasileira de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, SBCTA. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Baig S., Azizan A.H.S., Raghavendran H.R.B., Natarajan E., Naveen S., Murali M.R., Nam H.Y., Kamarul T.(2019)

We have determined the protective effects of Thymus serpyllum (TS) extract and nanoparticle-loaded TS on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in vitro. Gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy confirmed the spectrum of active components in the extract. Out of the three different extracts, the hexane extract showed significant free radical scavenging activity. Treatment of MSCs with H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) significantly increased intracellular cell death; however, pretreatment with TS extract and nanoparticle-loaded TS (200 μg/ml) suppressed H2O2-induced elevation of Cyt-c and MMP13 and increased the survival rates of MSCs. H2O2-induced (0.1 mM) changes in cytokines were attenuated in the extract and nanoparticles by pretreatment and cotreatment at two time points (p < 0 05). H2O2 increased cell apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with nanoparticle-loaded TS suppressed the percentage of apoptosis considerably (p < 0 05). Therefore, TS may be considered as a potential candidate for enhancing the effectiveness of MSC transplantation in cell therapy. Copyright © 2019 Salma Baig et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License.

[Full Article]

Sim Y.Y., Nyam K.L.(2019)

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) has become a valuable industrial crop in Malaysia as a source of natural fibrous stem. Recently, the leaves has been also considered as a source of industrial products. Besides, the kenaf leaves can make into tea. Being a perishable, storage is challenging, hence the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different drying methods on the physical properties and antioxidant activities of kenaf leaves. Analysis of total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were also carried out. The sample retained the highest antioxidant activities was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Freeze dried sample was found to have the best quality in terms of color retention and antioxidant activities compared with those subjected to room, microwave, vacuum oven and oven drying. Freeze dried sample retained the highest antioxidant activities as shown by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Kenaf leaves tea (KLT) contained kaempferol, caffeic acid, tannic acid, catechin hydrate and chlorogenic acid, which can be used as sources of alternative antioxidant in food and biopharmaceuticals industry. There were positive correlation relationship between all antioxidant analysis, phenolic and flavonoid compounds presented in the KLT. Microwave drying, which is low in operating cost and time saving can be the alternative to freeze drying. Further studied can be undertaken to optimize the condition of different drying methods. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

[Full Article]

Sim Y.Y., Jess Ong W.T., Nyam K.L.(2019)

This work aimed to assess the effect of different extraction solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, and acetone) on the pulsed ultrasonic assisted extraction of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (kenaf) leaves extract (KLE), including extraction yield, antioxidation evaluation, antimicrobial analysis, tyrosinase inhibitory, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultra high performances liquid chromatography (UPLC) study. Results showed that the ethanol extracted KLE exhibited the highest content of total phenolic content (98.17 mg/g KLE). The ethanol extracted KLE also presented a good performances on 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′- azino- bis (3- ethylbenzo thiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and antimicrobial activity. Good correlation was obtained between the antioxidant activities analysis and total phenolic contents. Additionally, the ethanol extracted KLE showed the strong tyrosinase inhibitory (70.42%), although it was lower than the water extracted KLE (77.50%). Three phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, catechin hydrate, and tannic acid) were identified in the ethanol extracted KLE by UPLC. These findings clearly indicate that ethanol was the most effective solvent for extraction of phenolic and flavonoid compounds from kenaf leaves. The results suggest that the kenaf leaves can be a promising source of natural antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antityrosinase constituent for application in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

[Full Article]

Chan E.W.C., Ong A.C.L., Lim K.L., Chong W.Y., Chia P.X., Foo J.P.Y.(2019)

In this study, the antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase properties of fresh, commercial dried (CD) and superheated steam-dried (SS-D) Labiatae herbs were analysed and evaluated. Superheated steam drying (SSD) was performed at 150°C and 200°C for 5, 10 and 20 min. Fresh and CD rosemary had the highest phenolic contents and the strongest primary antioxidant activities of free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power. Fresh spearmint, CD peppermint and CD oregano displayed the strongest secondary antioxidant activity of ferrous ion chelating ability. Based on total phenolic content and free radical scavenging, three broad categories of SS-D herbs were recognized i.e. herbs that showed declines for all the drying regimes (thyme and peppermint); those that showed declines or remained unchanged (marjoram and oregano); and those that showed all three traits of increment, declines or unchanged (rosemary, sage and spearmint). Tyrosinase inhibition was strongest in fresh sage, fresh rosemary, CD thyme and CD rosemary. Reported for the first time, SS-D rosemary, SS-D thyme and SS-D marjoram showed enhanced anti-tyrosinase properties for all the drying regimes. SS-D marjoram was the most exciting as tyrosinase inhibition was not detected in fresh samples. This study on the antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase properties of selected Labiatae herbs has provided some useful insights on the effects of SSD. The drying technique can be used for the production of tyrosinase inhibitors, which are increasingly used in medicines for treating pigmentation disorders, in cosmetics for skin whitening, and in food products for inhibiting browning. © 2019, North University of Baia Mare.

[Full Article]

Sim M.S., Mohtaram R.(2019)

Adolescent stage is a duration whereby an individual experiences gradual changes physically and emotionally from childhood to adulthood. During this stage, they will encounter a lot of challenges, ambiguities, obligations, expectations and influences which may affects them emotionally and make them feel unhappy. Individuals who are not happy are more likely to experience severe mental illness and other serious psychological issues that may affect their functioning in the form of social, cognitive and emotional. Present study was carried out to determine the role of emotional intelligence as a mediator between personality and happiness among adolescents in Malaysia. 384 adolescents (13 to 17 years old) from four private institutions were selected as the respondents of this study. The data collected with using Goldberg’s International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) Big-Five Factor Marker, Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ). Emotional intelligence partially mediates extraversion and conscientiousness to happiness, and fully mediates agreeableness and neuroticism to happiness. However, emotional intelligence does not mediate openness and happiness. All the Big Five personality, except for openness were significantly correlated to happiness. A significant correlation was found between personality and emotional intelligence. Lastly, emotional intelligence is positively correlated to happiness. Emotional intelligence does play a role in mediating personality and happiness. In order to come out with a more comprehensive and informative outcome, future researcher should replicate this study by using various assessments when evaluating an individual’s happiness for their study. © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reseved.

[Full Article]

Tan E.W., Tan K.Y., Phang L.V., Kumar P.V., In L.L.A.(2019)

Vaccine administration via the oral route is preferable to parenteral routes due to ease of administration. To date, most available oral vaccines comprises of live attenuated pathogens as oppose to peptide-based vaccines due to its low bioavailability within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Over the years, probiotic-based peptide delivery vehicles comprising of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis has emerged as an interesting alternative due to its generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, a fully sequenced genome, transient gut colonization time, and is an efficient cellular factory for heterologous protein production. However, its survivability through the GI tract is low, thus better delivery approaches are being explored to improve its bioavailability. In this study, we employ the incorporation of a double coated mucoadhesive film consisting of sodium alginate and Lycoat RS 720 film as the inner coat. The formulated film exhibits good mechanical properties of tensile strength and percent elongation for manipulation and handling with an entrapment yield of 93.14 ±2.74%. The formulated mucoadhesive film is subsequently loaded into gelatin capsules with an outer enteric Eudragit L100-55 coating capable of a pH-dependent breakdown above pH 5.5 to protect against gastric digestion. The final product and unprotected controls were subjected to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestions to assess its survivability. The product demonstrated enhanced protection with an increase of 69.22±0.67% (gastric) and 40.61±8.23% (intestinal) survivability compared to unprotected controls after 6 hours of sequential digestion. This translates to a 3.5 fold increase in overall survivability. Owing to this, the proposed oral delivery system has shown promising potential as a live gastrointestinal vaccine delivery host. Further studies involving in vivo gastrointestinal survivability and mice immunization tests are currently being carried out to assess the efficacy of this novel oral delivery system in comparison to parenteral routes. © 2019 Tan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

[Full Article]

Sidra S., Tariq M.H., Farrukh M.J., Mohsin M.(2019)

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical manifestations and health risks associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its impact on quality of life (QOL) in Pakistan. A detailed cross-sectional study was conducted on PCOS among women of reproductive age visiting the gynecology and obstetrics and endocrinology departments at primary and tertiary care hospitals located in Abbottabad, Kohat, and Islamabad. In total, 440 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were included. A checklist was specifically designed to identify symptoms and health risks, including adverse drug reactions, complications, irrational prescription or underprescription, and drug-drug interactions. The Short Form-12 questionnaire was used to evaluate the QOL of patients with PCOS. Data collected were analyzed for descriptive and inferential statistics using chi-square test, analysis of variance, and post hoc analysis. All patients exhibited the cardinal symptoms of PCOS, including obesity (n = 352, 80%), acne (n = 296, 67.3), hirsutism (n = 299, 68%), hyperglycemia (n = 278, 63.2%), and irregular menstruation (n = 316, 71.8%). Ultrasonography confirmed that 268 (61%) patients had multiple cysts of >10 mm in diameter. Patients with untreated PCOS exhibited a high prevalence of health risks including hypertension (n = 87, 19.8%), diabetes (n = 268, 60.9%), sleep apnea (n = 11, 2.5%), infertility (n = 146, 33.2%), increased endometrial thickness (n = 21, 4.8%), miscarriages (n = 68, 15.5%), high cholesterol level (n = 85, 19.3%), and hyperandrogenism (n = 342, 77.7%). Most patients exhibited low QOL scores (n = 374, 85%), with depression being the largest contributor to low QOL. Apart from novel results, this study found an association between depression and low QOL in patients with PCOS, suggesting the need for reviewing the management guidelines and psychological health assessment of women with PCOS. © 2019 Sidra et al.

[Full Article]

Yap W.Y., Tan K.J.S.X., Hwang J.S.(2019)

Hydra actinoporin-like toxin 1 (HALT-1) was previously shown to cause cytolysis and haemolysis in a number of human cells and has similar functional properties to the actinoporins equinatoxin and sticholysin. In addition to HALT-1, five other HALTs (HALTs 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7) were also isolated from Hydra magnipapillata and expressed as recombinant proteins in this study. We demonstrated that recombinant HALTs have cytolytic activity on HeLa cells but each exhibited a different range of toxicity. All six recombinant HALTs bound to sulfatide, while rHALT-1 and rHALT-3 bound to two additional sphingolipids, lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine-1-phosphate as indicated by the protein-lipid overlay assay. When either tryptophan133 or tyrosine129 of HALT-1 was mutated, the mutant protein lost binding to sulfatide, lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine-1-phosphate. As further verification of HALTs’ binding to sulfatide, we performed ELISA for each HALT. To determine the cell-type specific gene expression of seven HALTs in Hydra, we searched for individual HALT expression in the single-cell RNA-seq data set of Single Cell Portal. The results showed that HALT-1, 4 and 7 were expressed in differentiating stenoteles. HALT-1 and HALT-6 were expressed in the female germline during oogenesis. HALT-2 was strongly expressed in the gland and mucous cells in the endoderm. Information on HALT-3 and HALT-5 could not be found in the single-cell data set. Our findings show that subfunctionalisation of gene expression following duplication enabled HALTs to become specialized in various cell types of the interstitial cell lineage. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

[Full Article]

Nur Atikah A.H., Wee L.H., Nur Zakiah M.S., Chan C.M.H., Mohamed Haniki N.M., Swinderjit J.S., Siau C.S.(2019)

Background: This study focused on the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and adolescent smoking among secondary school students (13 to 17 years) in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between adolescent demographics, socioeconomic status and smoking status. Methods: The survey data were based on baseline findings from a cross-sectional study (N = 422 adolescents). Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (household monthly income and daily allowance) and adolescent smoking status. Exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) reading and the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) were used to evaluate adolescent smoking status. A Multivariate Multinomial Logistic Regression (MMLR) was employed to test selected demographic and socioeconomic predictors of smoking status. Results: Of the 422 adolescents (M age = 15.58, SD = 1.24), more than half of the participants initiated smoking between 13 to 17 years old (59.0%). A total of 308 (73.0%) were electronic cigarette users, with more than 50% comprising of single users. The mean CO reading was 2.14 ppm with 78.0% of adolescents scoring more than 0 on the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC). Males and participants aged 15 and 16 years were at increased risks of sole CC smoking. Meanwhile, males, those who are not hooked on smoking and with a non-smoker CO reading were at increased risks of sole EC smoking. Finally, Bumiputeras were at less risk of EC smoking. Conclusions: Demographic variables such as age, gender and ethnicity predicted smoking status predicted smoking risk, but not socioeconomic factors. The findings allow policy makers to target specific high-risk demographic groups when designing smoking cessation programs for adolescents. © 2019 The Author(s).

[Full Article]

Wai A.H.C., Seng S.Y., Fei J.L.W.(2019)

In recent years, death involving road accidents has become a global raising trend since more people are dependent on automobile transportation. Thus, this work was done to forecast road fatalities for years ahead in Malaysia using three different forecasting models with past data collected as comparison. Comparison between 3 types of forecasting model which were ARIMA(0,1,1), Poisson GLM and Negative Binomial GLM was done and the most suitable model following Malaysia's trend was determined. Road traffic fatality data was taken from Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research. The data analysis was done by using R programming and EViews. The comparison was done in term of mean squared error, (MSE), root-mean-square error (RMSE), relative forecast error (RFE), mean absolute deviation (MAD) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Results showed that ARIMA model is the best fitted model among Poisson and Negative Binomial models. Hence, the time series ARIMA model has been considered the best models compared to Poisson regression GLM model and Negative Binomial regression GLM model. © 2019 Association for Computing Machinery.

[Full Article]

Phan C.-W., Wang J.-K., Tan E.Y.-Y., Tan Y.-S., Sathiya Seelan J.S., Cheah S.-C., Vikineswary S.(2019)

Pleurotus giganteus (Berk.) Karunarathna & Hyde is one of the largest edible mushrooms which can be found either in groups or solitary and in soil and buried woods, but seldom in grassland. It has been recorded in Southeast Asia, Australasia, and China by either its common names or local names. Previously known as Lentinus/Panus giganteus, its unique physical characteristics and the utilization of molecular tools have since anchored its taxonomical position in the Pleurotus genus. A sawdust-based substrate coupled with soil casing method is described as a standard cultivation procedure for P. giganteus. The basidiocarp of P. giganteus is found to be rich in carbohydrates, proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polysaccharides. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. giganteus have been studied in vitro for its antioxidative, antifungal, anticancer, hepatoprotective, and neurite outgrowth capabilities. The review covers the optimum cultivation methods of P. giganteus, as well as its various biological activities and medicinal properties that have been studied by different approaches. Available data in regards to the chemical compounds present in P. giganteus are also compiled for future references. Overall, both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown significant bioactivity comparable to other recognized Pleurotoid mushrooms. © 2018, © 2018 Taylor & Francis.

[Full Article]

Sahlan N., Nor F.M., Muslim A., Shaari S.A., Rahman T.H.A., Peng H.B.(2019)

Introduction: Prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among the non-indigenous people in Malaysia has been well established and range between 3% and 5%. However, data from the indigenous (Orang Asli) people is still lacking. The Negrito population is the most remotely located Orang Asli tribe with limited access to health care facilities. This study was undertaken to determine the epidemiology and seroprevalence of HBV infection among the Negrito. Methods: Surveys were conducted in five Negrito settlements in Kelantan and Perak states in Malaysia. A total of 150 participants were recruited. Clinical history was taken and physical examination was performed. Five millilitres of whole blood were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: Participants were mainly from the Bateq (49.3%) and Mendriq (29.4%) sub-tribes. Overall, 13 subjects (8.7 %); nine males and four females were HBsAg positive. Nine of the HBsAg positive subjects were ≥35 years old. All of them had history of home deliver without evidence of antenatal record. Six (46%) of the HBsAg positive subjects had tattoo and body piercing in the past. Conclusion: The prevalence of HBV infection rate amongst the Negrito tribe is almost three-fold compared to the national rates. The reason for this finding remains unclear. Tattooing, body piercing and vertical transmission could be the main possible routes of transmission of HBV among the Negrito population in Malaysia. © 2019, Malaysian Medical Association. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Huang Y., Ting P.Y., Yao T.M., Homma T., Brooks D., Rangel I.K., Adler G.K., Romero J.R., Williams J.S., Pojoga L.H., Williams G.H.(2019)

Human risk allele carriers of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) and LSD1-deficient mice have salt-sensitive hypertension for unclear reasons. We hypothesized that LSD1 deficiency causes dysregulation of aldosterone’s response to salt intake resulting in increased cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure and microalbumin). Furthermore, we determined the effect of biological sex on these potential abnormalities. To test our hypotheses, LSD1 male and female heterozygote-knockout (LSD1+/−) and WT mice were assigned to two age groups: 18 weeks and 36 weeks. Plasma aldosterone levels and aldosterone production from zona glomerulosa cells studied ex vivo were greater in both male and female LSD1+/− mice consuming a liberal salt diet as compared to WT mice consuming the same diet. However, salt-sensitive blood pressure elevation and increased microalbuminuria were only observed in male LSD1+/− mice. These data suggest that LSD1 interacts with aldosterone’s secretory response to salt intake. Lack of LSD1 causes inappropriate aldosterone production on a liberal salt diet; males appear to be more sensitive to this aldosterone increase as males, but not females, develop salt sensitivity of blood pressure and increased microalbuminuria. The mechanism responsible for the cardiovascular protective effect in females is uncertain but may be related to estrogen modulating the effect of mineralocorticoid receptor activation. © 2019 Society for Endocrinology Published by Bioscientifica Ltd.

[Full Article]

Subramaniyan V., Kayarohanam S., Ashok Kumar J., Kumarasamy V.(2019)

Since ancient times until now exploring the importance of herbal medicines to treat the variety of diseases. Currently the herbal medicines searching for health, wellness and aim to achieve effective treatment without much side effect. Recent days the impact of herbal medicines well established even herbal treatment is one of the alternative medicines for most of the diseases such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus etc. Medicinal plants always have been rich sources of bioactive compounds, and that will be very helpful to human health. The reasons for herbal medicines attracted by the health care professionals and common individuals, including concern about confidence and safety of drugs. Allopathic medicines have many side effects and sometimes failing to treat and most of the herbal drugs proven better therapeutic effects without any major adverse effects. With the demand for phytomedicine user, this review highlights modern herbal drug formulation and its clinical use. © 2018 Pharmascope Publications. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Chan B.T., Ahmad Bakir A., Al Abed A., Dokos S., Leong C.N., Ooi E.H., Lim R., Lim E.(2019)

Flow energetics have been proposed as early indicators of progressive left ventricular (LV) functional impairment in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), but its correlation with individual MI parameters has not been fully explored. Using electro–fluid-structure interaction LV models, this study investigated the correlation between four MI parameters: infarct size, infarct multiplicity, regional enhancement of contractility at the viable myocardium area (RECVM), and LV mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) with intraventricular vortex and flow energetics. In LV with small infarcts, our results showed that infarct appearance amplified the energy dissipation index (DI), where substantial viscous energy loss was observed in areas with high flow velocity and near the infarct-vortex interface. The LV with small multiple infarcts and RECVM showed remarkable DI increment during systole and diastole. In correlation analysis, the systolic kinetic energy fluctuation index (E′) was positively related to ejection fraction (EF) (R2 = 0.982) but negatively correlated with diastolic E′ (R2 = 0.970). Diastolic E′ was inversely correlated with vortex kinetic energy (R2 = 0.960) and vortex depth (R2 = 0.876). We showed an excessive systolic DI could differentiate infarcted LV with normal EF from healthy LV. Strong flow acceleration, LVMD, and vortex-infarct interactions were predominant factors that induced excessive DI in infarcted LVs. Instead of causing undesired flow turbulence, high systolic E′ suggested the existence of energetic flow acceleration, while high diastolic E′ implied an inefficient diastolic filling. Thus, systolic E′ is not a suitable early indicator for progressive LV dysfunction in MI patients, while diastolic E′ may be a useful index to indicate diastolic impairment in these patients. © 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

[Full Article]

Ching M.O.Y., Chinnappan S., Rajagopal M.S.(2019)

Garcinia mangostana pericarps have been traditionally used in Southeast Asia for a variety of medicinal conditions. The present study was carried out to determine the anti-motility and antispasmodic effects of methanolic and aqueous G. mangostana extracts (MEM and AEM) on isolated chicken ileum. Extracts were prepared from the pericarp of G. mangostana using maceration technique with methanol and distilled water. Isolated ileum preparations were set up for recording in Tyrode’s solution at 37°C. Dose-response curves were plotted using various doses of agonist as control such as acetylcholine (ACh) and histamine. Atropine, mepyramine and extracts were used as an antagonist. The results showed that methanolic and aqueous extracts possess significant concentration-dependent inhibitory effects (p<0.05) on agonistinduced contractions. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of extracts and standard antagonists were higher than the agonist alone. Both methanolic and aqueous extract of G. mangostana exerts anti-motility and antispasmodic effects on smooth muscle contractions. The study provides findings that support G. mangostana can be the potential treatment for diarrhea and spasm. © 2018 Pharmascope Publications. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

O'Donnell M., Mente A., Rangarajan S., McQueen M.J., O'Leary N., Yin L., Liu X., Swaminathan S., Khatib R., Rosengren A., Ferguson J., Smyth A., Lopez-Jaramillo P., Diaz R., Avezum A., Lanas F., Ismail N., Yusoff K., Dans A., Iqbal R., Szuba A., Mohammadi(2019)

Objective: To evaluate the joint association of sodium and potassium urinary excretion (as surrogate measures of intake) with cardiovascular events and mortality, in the context of current World Health Organization recommendations for daily intake (<2.0 g sodium, >3.5 g potassium) in adults. Design: International prospective cohort study. Setting: 18 high, middle, and low income countries, sampled from urban and rural communities. Participants: 103 570 people who provided morning fasting urine samples. Main outcome measures: Association of estimated 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion (surrogates for intake) with all cause mortality and major cardiovascular events, using multivariable Cox regression. A six category variable for joint sodium and potassium was generated: sodium excretion (low (<3 g/day), moderate (3-5 g/day), and high (>5 g/day) sodium intakes) by potassium excretion (greater/equal or less than median 2.1 g/day). Results: Mean estimated sodium and potassium urinary excretion were 4.93 g/day and 2.12 g/day, respectively. After a median follow-up of 8.2 years, 7884 (6.1%) participants had died or experienced a major cardiovascular event. Increasing urinary sodium excretion was positively associated with increasing potassium excretion (unadjusted r=0.34), and only 0.002% had a concomitant urinary excretion of <2.0 g/day of sodium and >3.5 g/day of potassium. A J-shaped association was observed of sodium excretion and inverse association of potassium excretion with death and cardiovascular events. For joint sodium and potassium excretion categories, the lowest risk of death and cardiovascular events occurred in the group with moderate sodium excretion (3-5 g/day) and higher potassium excretion (21.9% of cohort). Compared with this reference group, the combinations of low potassium with low sodium excretion (hazard ratio 1.23, 1.11 to 1.37; 7.4% of cohort) and low potassium with high sodium excretion (1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; 13.8% of cohort) were associated with the highest risk, followed by low sodium excretion (1.19, 1.02 to 1.38; 3.3% of cohort) and high sodium excretion (1.10, 1.02 to 1.18; 29.6% of cohort) among those with potassium excretion greater than the median. Higher potassium excretion attenuated the increased cardiovascular risk associated with high sodium excretion (P for interaction=0.007). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the simultaneous target of low sodium intake (<2 g/day) with high potassium intake (>3.5 g/day) is extremely uncommon. Combined moderate sodium intake (3-5 g/day) with high potassium intake is associated with the lowest risk of mortality and cardiovascular events. © 2019 Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.

[Full Article]

Che Hamzah N., Mohammed A., Sirajudeen K.N.S., Asari M., Hamzah Z., Shaik I.(2019)

Objective: To investigate the wound-healing effect of Alocasia longiloba (A. longiloba) petiole extract on wounds in rats. Methods: Twenty-two male Sprague-dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive 10% solcoseryl gel, phosphate buffer saline, 50% ethanol, 95% ethanol and hexane extracts of A. longiloba at 1.5%, 3% and 6% doses, respectively. A full thicknesses wound (6 mm) was created on the dorsal of the rat; and all rats were applied with the extract solutions, 10% solcoseryl gel and phosphate buffer saline once a day topically until day 12. The wound was photographed on day 1, 6 and 12, and the percentage of wound contraction was calculated. On day 12, rats were sacrificed and histological examination of granulation tissue was carried out using haematoxylin & eosin and Masson's Trichrome stain to determine the wound healing effect. Results: In this study, 6% of 50% and 95% ethanol extracts of A. longiloba showed 82.50% and 82.32% wound contraction, respectively, and were comparable with 10% solcoseryl gel (82.30%). Meanwhile, phosphate buffer saline treated group showed the lowest wound contraction (69.86%). Histological assessment of wound treated with 6% of 95% ethanol extract of A. longiloba showed distinct epidermal and dermal layer, higher proliferation of fibroblast and more angiogenesis with collagen compared to other wound treated groups. Conclusions: A. longiloba petiole extracts have a wound healing potential and 6% of 95% ethanol extract of A. longiloba is more effective. Further studies are required to understand the wound healing mechanism of action of the extract. © 2019 Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine Produced by Wolters Kluwer-Medknow. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Kanagasundram S., Amini F.(2019)

Background:: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) can cure leukaemia. However, long term complications of post transplantation interfere with the patients’ full recovery. The objective of this review was to identify the various long term complications and to assess their individual prevalences. Methods:: Electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane were searched for years 2004–2017. The keywords used were leukaemia, allogenic stem cell transplantation, prevalence, side effects, long term, delayed, adverse effects, complications and outcome. Results:: A total of ten articles were included for analysis. There were 5 prospective studies, 3 retrospective studies and 2 cross sectional studies. A total of 40,069 patients, (20,189 males and 17,191 females) participated in these 10 studies. The gender of 2689 patients were not disclosed. Most common late complications and prevalence were chronic graft versus host disease (43% at 5 years post HSCT), secondary tumor (21% at 20 years post HSCT), hypothyroidism (11% at 15 years), bronchiolitis obliterans (9.7% at 122 days), cardiovascular disease (7.5% at 15 years) and avascular necrosis (5.4% at 10 years). The prevalence of azoospermia was 71.1% and depression, 18%. For the latter two conditions no time limit was available. Follow up duration ranged from 2 years till 30 years post HSCT. Conclusion:: While allogenic stem cell transplantation is an effective cure for leukaemia, the procedure is associated with complications that can have their onset many years after the procedure. © 2018, The Korean Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Society and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature.

[Full Article]

Tan P.Y., Mitra S.R., Amini F.(2019)

Background/Aims: Excess weight gain is a result of the interaction between diet, environment, and genes. Evidence suggests that responses to lifestyle interventions to manage weight are partially modified by genetic factors. This review is aimed at summarizing the current evidence from studies done on gene variants - single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) - and intervention outcomes on weight loss and obesity-related traits. Methods: Intervention studies published in English between 2000 and August 2018 were retrieved from PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science using various keywords. Results: This article is a review of 36 studies conducted in 13 different countries which included a total of 15,931 participants between 19 and 70 years of age. The effect of 26 genes and 64 SNPs on the reduction of body weight and metabolic risk factors in response to diet, exercise, and lifestyle interventions was reviewed. Conclusion: Gene-lifestyle interaction studies on the same candidate gene in different populations have reported information which is challenging to interpret. Thus, it is difficult to arrive at a particular model for a strategy on weight management at this point in time. Most of the intervention studies focus on the effect of variants of a single candidate gene on weight loss. Further evidence from large-scale studies is necessary to assess the effect of multiple candidate genes to compute a gene score that could be used in a model intervention programme. Our review suggests that a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet and regular physical activity will benefit individuals who carry the risk alleles of the obesity-related candidate genes. This message should be the mainstay of the recommendations and guidelines published by nutrition societies across the world. © 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Irawati L., Alrasheedy A.A., Hassali M.A., Saleem F.(2019)

Background: Understanding community perspectives on antibiotics and antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a key component in designing educational interventions to combat ABR at the community level in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to explore community residents' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding antibiotics and ABR in Jelutong District, Penang, Malaysia. Moreover, it intended to identify areas of focus to be addressed when designing an educational intervention to increase residents' knowledge and change their attitudes and perceptions. Methods: A qualitative approach was adopted to gain a deeper understanding of community residents' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding antibiotics and ABR. A purposive sampling was employed. Twenty-two residents (aged ≥18 years) were interviewed with the aid of a semi-structured interview guide. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Results: The majority of the participants asserted that antibiotics could be effective against viral infections. Moreover, many participants were unaware that antibiotics have adverse effects. Some acquired antibiotics from a community pharmacy without a prescription, took antibiotics given to them by their family or friends, or took leftover antibiotics prescribed for a previous illness. A few indicated that they would request antibiotics from their physician when they had viral infections. More than half of the participants discontinued taking antibiotics when their symptoms improved. The majority stated that ABR occurs when the body becomes used to antibiotics. Most participants were unaware of the causes, consequences and prevention of ABR. In fact, they were not concerned about it. As a result, only a few perceived themselves as having responsibility for preventing this problem. Conclusions: The community residents had misconceptions about antibiotics and ABR, negative attitudes towards antibiotics and negative perceptions of ABR. The areas of focus that need to be addressed when designing an educational intervention to increase the general public knowledge and change their attitudes and perceptions are the appropriate use of antibiotics and their adverse effects; the importance of adhering to antibiotic therapy; and the definition, causes, consequences and prevention of ABR. © 2019 The Author(s).

[Full Article]

Kosalishkwaran G., Parasuraman S., Singh D.K.J., Natarajan E., Elamvazuthi I., George J.(2019)

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common condition in elderly population that can be painful and can significantly affect individual’s quality of life. Diagnosis of DDD allows prompt corrective actions but it is challenging due to the absence of any symptoms at early stages. In studying disc degeneration, measurement of the range of motion (RoM) and loads acting on the spine are crucial factors. However, direct measurement of RoM involves increased instrumentation and risk. In this paper, an innovative method is proposed for calculating RoM, emphasizing repeatability and reliability by considering the posterior thickness of the spine. This is achieved by offsetting the position of markers in relation to the actual vertebral loci. Three geometrically identical finite element models of L3-L4 are developed from a CT scan with different types of elements, and thereafter, mesh element-related metrics are provided for the assessment of the quality of models. The model with the best mesh quality is used for further analysis, where RoM are within ranges as reported in literature and in vivo experiment results. Various kinds of stresses acting on individual components including facet joints are analysed for normal and abnormal loading conditions. The results showed that the stresses in abnormal load conditions for all components including cortical (76.67 MPa), cancellous (69.18 MPa), annulus (6.30 MPa) and nucleus (0.343 MPa) are significantly greater as compared to normal loads (49.96 MPa, 44.2 MPa, 4.28 MPa and 0.23 MPa respectively). However, stress levels for both conditions are within safe limits (167–215 MPa for cortical, 46 MPa for the annulus and 3 MPa for facets). The results obtained could be used as a baseline motion and stresses of healthy subjects based on their respective lifestyles, which could benefit clinicians to suggest corrective actions for those affected by DDD. © 2019, International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering.

[Full Article]

Alshahrani S.M., Alakhali K.M., Al-Worafi Y.M.(2019)

Purpose: To identify medication errors at Aseer Central Hospital (ACH, Abha) in the southern province of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted by reviewing adult patients’ records (> 15 years old) at ACH’s inpatient and outpatients settings over an 8-week period in October and November 2015. Results: We identified 113 medication errors, including 112 prescribing errors and 1 dispensing error. Most medication errors (91.2 %) in this study were for inpatient prescriptions. The most common prescribing error was medication duplication (31.2 %) followed by missing patient identifying information (25 %). Conclusion: Medication errors, mainly in inpatient prescriptions, have been fully identified at ACH. Educational interventions such as workshops could help minimize and prevent medication errors. © Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University �of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria.

[Full Article]

Nur H.S., Tan C.K., Normina A.B., Seghayat M.S., Amini F., Thiagarajah S., Tan E.S.S.(2019)

Menopause is a physiologic phase in women life involving hormonal changes that could lead to severe menopausal symptoms and thereafter affecting one’s quality of life. Moreover, army wives lead stressful lives. In this study, we aimed to determine quality of life among army wives during menopausal transition as well as to investigate possible association between socio-demographics and their quality of life. Seventy-five army wives were recruited. Mean age of menopause reported was 51.7 (± 2.5 SD). Physical domain was the most reported menopausal symptoms followed by psychosocial, sexual and vasomotor. Most army wives reported having lack of energy (78.7%), feeling worn out (77.3%) and decreased in physical energy (76%). Least reported symptom was change in facial hair (25.3%). Menopausal stages were significantly associated with MENQOL domains changes except sexual domain (p<0.05). Army wives in the early perimenopausal stage was most affected in psychological and physical domain. Overall MENQOL scores were associated with household income, spouse’s division and rank (p<0.05). Spouse support is crucial during the menopausal transition. As such, intervention such as awareness, education and counselling can help these army wives to improve their QoL. © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reseved.

[Full Article]

Aghakhanian F., Wong C., Tan J.S.Y., Yeo L.F., Ramadas A., Edo J., Hoh B.P., Khalid B.A.K., Phipps M.E.(2019)

Objectives: This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Orang Asli (OA), the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia. OA consist of Negrito, Proto-Malay, and Senoi groups who collectively comprise only 0.76% of the population of Peninsular Malaysia. Owing to the challenges in accessing their remote villages, these groups are often excluded in larger government health surveys. Although tropical diseases were scourges in the past, with rapid national development, many OA communities have been gradually urbanized. We believe an epidemiological transition is occurring and non-communicable diseases are on the rise. Study design: A retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Indigenous Malaysians (n = 629) from three major groups (Negrito, Proto-Malay, and Senoi) were recruited, after ethics approval and informed consent. Body mass index (BMI), body weight, height, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured, and participants were examined for acanthosis nigricans. Venous blood samples were used for measurements of fasting blood sugar, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Insulin resistance was estimated using a surrogate measurement TG/HDL-C. The ratios of TC to HDL-C, and of LDL-C to HDL-C were determined. MetS was accessed according to the Joint Interim Statement of the IDF Tsak Force on Epidemiology and Prevention. Results: MetS affected 29.57% of the OA population investigated and was significantly more prevalent (P < 0.05) in women than in men (35.25% vs 21.95%, P < 0.001). MetS prevalence was the highest among the Proto-Malays (39.56%), followed by Negritos (26.35%) and Senois (11.26%). The most prevalent risk factor among the Negritos with MetS was low HDL-C (95.35%), whereas central obesity was the most common risk factor among the Proto-Malays (82.91%). In contrast, hypertension was the commonest risk factor among the Senois with MetS (94.44%). Elevated TG/HDL-C ratios resulted in the highest risk for MetS among the OA population (relative risk [RR] = 7.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.58–13.72). The risk was almost four-fold among those with high TG (RR = 3.89, 95% CI = 3.08–4.91) and three-fold among those with BMI obesity (RR = 3.37, 95% CI = 2.61–4.36) and central obesity (RR = 2.99, 95% CI = 2.48–3.61). Conclusions: This may well be the first comprehensive report about MetS in OA indigenous communities in Malaysia. We have shown that rapidly urbanized OA communities had significant prevalence of MetS and associated cardiometabolic risk factors. Major contributory factors may include changes from previous hunter-gatherer lifestyles and subsistence diets to more urbanized lifestyles and easier access to high calorie foods. © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health

[Full Article]

Yee W.L., Yee C.L., Lin N.K., Phing P.L.(2019)

Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (L-NCFM) was microencapsulated via co-extrusion technique with mannitol. Optimization of coating material, locust bean gum (0% to 2%, w/v) and prebiotic, mannitol (0% to 5%, w/v) was tested on bead size and microencapsulation efficiency. L-NCFM cells microencapsulated in three different forms were tested in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0) and simulated intestinal juice (pH 7.5) and storage test at 4 °C and 25 °C for 4 weeks. 0.5% (w/v) locust bean gum and 3% (w/v) of mannitol are the optimal concentrations to produce bead size of 570 μm, microencapsulation efficiency of 96.81% and cell count 8.92 log CFU/mL. Microencapsulation of L-NCFM with mannitol protect cells better in acidic environment. The viability of encapsulated L-NCFM with mannitol at 4 °C throughout the storage period for 30 days ranged from 8.62 log cfu/mL to 6.80 log cfu/mL, which met the minimum required for probiotic (106 CFU/mL). © 2019. Federal University of Lavras. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Ng S.L., Lai K.W., Nyam K.L., Pui L.P.(2019)

Aims: Microencapsulation has been used to protect the viability of probiotics in harsh environments such as gastrointestinal conditions and food composition. The present study aimed to optimize the microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v) using co-extrusion by varying two parameters (calcium chloride (CaCl2) and oligofructose (FOS) concentrations) and storage stability of the beads produced in ambarella juice at refrigerated and room temperature. Methodology and results: Chitosan coated-alginate microcapsule prepared with 4.0% (w/v) FOS and 2.5% (w/v) CaCl2 showed highest microencapsulation efficiency (93%). The microcapsules were subjected to gastrointestinal treatment and storage test in ambarella juice. Both encapsulated Lp299v with and without FOS showed higher viabilities compared with free cells after incubated in simulated gastric juice (SGJ) and simulated intestinal juice (SIJ). After 5 h of incubation in SIJ, the viabilities of both encapsulated probiotic with and without FOS were more than 107 CFU/mL. The Lp299v were stored in ambarella juice under refrigerated (4 °C) and room temperature (25 °C) for 4 weeks. At 25 °C, all forms of Lp299v lost their viabilities after one week. On the other hand, at 4 °C, viable cells count of both encapsulated Lp299v with and without FOS were reported to be more than 107 CFU/mL after 4 weeks of storage. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Microencapsulation with FOS was able to improve Lp299v's viability during storage in low pH fruit juices compared to those without FOS. The microencapsulated probiotics could be applied in ambarella juice for the development of functional food. © 2019, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

[Full Article]

Maki M.A.A., Kumar P.V., Cheah S.-C., Siew Wei Y., Al-Nema M., Bayazeid O., Majeed A.B.B.A.(2019)

Several studies have shown that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor; everolimus (EV) improves patient survival in several types of cancer. However, the meaningful efficacy of EV as a single agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) has failed to be proven in multiple clinical trials. Combination therapy is one of the options that could increase the efficacy and decrease the toxicity of the anticancer therapy. This study revealed that the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD):FGF7 complex has the potential to improve the antiproliferative effect of EV by preventing FGF receptor activation and by enhancing EV cellular uptake and intracellular retention. Molecular docking techniques were used to investigate the possible interaction between EV, β-CD, and FGF7. Molecular docking insights revealed that β-CD and EV are capable to form a stable inclusion complex with FGF at the molecular level. The aqueous solubility of the inclusion complex was increased (3.1 ± 0.23 μM) when compared to the aqueous solubility of pure EV (1.7 ± 0.16 μM). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of a FGF7:β-CD:EV complex on Caco-2 cell line was investigated using real-time xCELLigence technology. The FGF7:β-CD:EV complex has induced apoptosis of Caco-2 cells and shown higher cytotoxic activity than the parent drug EV. With the multitargets effect of β-CD:FGF7 and EV, the antiproliferative effect of EV was remarkably improved as the IC50 value of EV was reduced from 9.65 ± 1.42 to 1.87 ± 0.33 μM when compared to FGF7:β-CD:EV complex activity. In conclusion, the findings advance the understanding of the biological combinational effects of the β-CD:FGF7 complex and EV as an effective treatment to combat CRC. © 2019 American Chemical Society.

[Full Article]

Duong M., Islam S., Rangarajan S., Leong D., Kurmi O., Teo K., Killian K., Dagenais G., Lear S., Wielgosz A., Nair S., Mohan V., Mony P., Gupta R., Kumar R., Rahman O., Yusoff K., du Plessis J.L., Igumbor E.U., Chifamba J., Li W., Lu Y., Zhi F., Yan R., I(2019)

Background: The associations between the extent of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) impairment and mortality, incident cardiovascular disease, and respiratory hospitalisations are unclear, and how these associations might vary across populations is unknown. Methods: In this international, community-based cohort study, we prospectively enrolled adults aged 35–70 years who had no intention of moving residences for 4 years from rural and urban communities across 17 countries. A portable spirometer was used to assess FEV 1 . FEV 1 values were standardised within countries for height, age, and sex, and expressed as a percentage of the country-specific predicted FEV 1 value (FEV 1 %). FEV 1 % was categorised as no impairment (FEV 1 % ≥0 SD from country-specific mean), mild impairment (FEV 1 % <0 SD to −1 SD), moderate impairment (FEV 1 % <–1 SD to −2 SDs), and severe impairment (FEV 1 % <–2 SDs [ie, clinically abnormal range]). Follow-up was done every 3 years to collect information on mortality, cardiovascular disease outcomes (including myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden death, or congestive heart failure), and respiratory hospitalisations (from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumonia, tuberculosis, or other pulmonary conditions). Fully adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by multilevel Cox regression. Findings: Among 126 359 adults with acceptable spirometry data available, during a median 7·8 years (IQR 5·6–9·5) of follow-up, 5488 (4·3%) deaths, 5734 (4·5%) cardiovascular disease events, and 1948 (1·5%) respiratory hospitalisation events occurred. Relative to the no impairment group, mild to severe FEV 1 % impairments were associated with graded increases in mortality (HR 1·27 [95% CI 1·18–1·36] for mild, 1·74 [1·60–1·90] for moderate, and 2·54 [2·26–2·86] for severe impairment), cardiovascular disease (1·18 [1·10–1·26], 1·39 [1·28–1·51], 2·02 [1·75–2·32]), and respiratory hospitalisation (1·39 [1·24–1·56], 2·02 [1·75–2·32], 2·97 [2·45–3·60]), and this pattern persisted in subgroup analyses considering country income level and various baseline risk factors. Population-attributable risk for mortality (adjusted for age, sex, and country income) from mildly to moderately reduced FEV 1 % (24·7% [22·2–27·2]) was larger than that from severely reduced FEV 1 % (3·7% [2·1–5·2]) and from tobacco use (19·7% [17·2–22·3]), previous cardiovascular disease (5·5% [4·5–6·5]), and hypertension (17·1% [14·6–19·6]). Population-attributable risk for cardiovascular disease from mildly to moderately reduced FEV 1 was 17·3% (14·8–19·7), second only to the contribution of hypertension (30·1% [27·6–32·5]). Interpretation: FEV 1 is an independent and generalisable predictor of mortality, cardiovascular disease, and respiratory hospitalisation, even across the clinically normal range (mild to moderate impairment). Funding: Population Health Research Institute, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, AstraZeneca, Sanofi-Aventis, Boehringer Ingelheim, Servier, and GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, and King Pharma. Additional funders are listed in the appendix. © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license

[Full Article]

Hoh B.-P., Abdul Rahman T., Yusoff K.(2019)

Prevalence of hypertension (HTN) varies substantially across different populations. HTN is not only common - affecting at least one third of the world's adult population - but is also the most important driver for cardiovascular diseases. Yet up to a third of hypertensive patients are resistant to therapy, contributed by secondary hypertension but more commonly the hitherto inability to precisely predict response to specific antihypertensive agents. Population and individual genomics information could be useful in guiding the selection and predicting the response to treatment - an approach known as precision medicine. However this cannot be achieved without the knowledge of genetic variations that influence blood pressure (BP). A number of evolutionary factors including population demographics and forces of natural selection may be involved. This article explores some ideas on how natural selection influences BP regulation in ethnically and geographically diverse populations that could lead to them being susceptible to HTN. We explore how such evolutionary factors could impact the implementation of precision medicine in HTN. Finally, in order to ensure the success of precision medicine in HTN, we call for more initiatives to understand the genetic architecture within and between diverse populations with ancestry from different parts of the world, and to precisely classify the intermediate phenotypes of HTN.

[Full Article]

Solihin M.I., Shameem Y., Htut T., Ang C.K., Bt Hidayab M.(2019)

Non-invasive blood glucose measurement would ease everyday life of diabetic patients and may cut the cost involved in their treatments. This project aims at developing a non-invasive blood glucose measurement using NIR (near infrared) spectroscopic device. NIR spectra data and blood glucose levels were collected from 45 participants, resulting 90 samples (75 samples for calibration and 15 samples for testing) in this project. These samples were then used to develop a predictive model using Interval Partial Least Square (IPLS) regression method. The results obtained from this project indicate that the handheld micro NIR has potential use for rapid non-invasive blood glucose monitoring. The coefficient of determination (R2) obtained for calibration/training and testing dataset are respectively 0.9 and 0.91. © BEIESP.

[Full Article]

Khalivulla S.I., Mohammed A., Sirajudeen K.N.S., Shaik M.I., Ye W., Korivi M.(2019)

Background: Typhonium is the largest genus in the Araceae family (~70 species), distributed in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Typhonium is well-known for its ethnopharmacological uses, and Southeast Asians consider it as an alternative medicine to treat cancer. This review elucidated the confirmed chemical structures of the isolated compounds of Typhonium and emphasized on their anticancer activities against various human cancer cells. Methods: Among several species, Typhonium blumei, T. flagelliforme, T. divaricatum and T. giganteum were extensively studied due to the presence of a class of secondary metabolites. All the available reports on Typhonium were included and discussed in this article. Results: Until now several groups of compounds, namely amino acids (1, 2), cinnamic acid (3), fatty acids (4-14), glycerol derivatives (15-18) and cerebrosides (19-34), flavonoids (35), hydantoins (36-38), lignin monomers (39-44), nucleobases (45-48), pheophorbides (49-52), phthalate (53), terpene and steroids (54-59) and vitamins (60, 61) were isolated and characterized from Typhonium. These phytochemicals were investigated for their anticancer properties, and results confirmed the promising growth inhibitory effect and anticancer activities against human lung, breast, prostate and colon cancer cells. The anticancer activity of these compounds appears to be mediated through the induction of apoptotic cell death. These phytochemicals further reported to exhibit other pharmacological efficacies, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-allergic, neuroprotective and hepato-protective properties. Conclusion: This is the first review to summarize the anticancer properties of all isolated compounds of Typhonium genus with confirmed chemical structures. Further advanced studies are necessary to establish the detailed signaling pathways that are involved in the anticancer property of the compounds. © 2019 Bentham Science Publishers.

[Full Article]

Lokesh B.V.S., Rajendra Prasad Y., Shaik A.B.(2019)

Twenty novel pyrimidine derivatives were synthesized from 2,5-dichloro-3-acetylthienyl chalcones by reacting with guanidine HCl in presence of KOH and ethanol under reflux for 6 h. Their structural characterizations were evaluated by ATR-FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy. They were also screened for antifungal, antitubercular and cytotoxicity activities. They were displayed good antifungal activity (MIC = 32-125 µg/mL) against Aspergillus Niger and Candida tropicalis fungal species except compound 15 with 4"-pyridinyl moiety (MIC = 8.00 µg/mL) being more potent. Compound 5 with 2",4"-dichlorophenyl moiety was shown with good antitubercular activity (MIC = 6.2 µg/mL) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MTB) stain. They have also tested for in vitro cytotoxicity activity against DU-145 prostate cancer cell lines. In which the compound 15 with 4"-pyridinyl moiety (IC50 = 2.0 ± 0.1 µg/mL) and compound 17 with 2"-pyrrolyl moiety (IC50 = 6.0 ± 0.1 µg/mL) possess highly potent antiprostate cancer properties. The molecular docking was done with the crystalline structure of mitochondrial 2-enoyl thioester reductase Etr1p/Etr2p heterodimer from Candida tropicalis fungal species with compound 15 (-7.80 kcal/mol) and shown greater binding affinity than fluconazole (-7.60 kcal/mol). Docking was performed with protein crystalline structure (PDB ID: 2WEE) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MTB) stain and among all, compound 5 was exhibited good binding affinity (-6.90 kcal/mol), compared to pyrazinamide (-4.10 kcal/mol). The protein crystalline structure of a mutant androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain (LBD) (PDB file: 1GS4) was tested with compounds 15 and 17 (-7.60 and -8.20 kcal/mol). They were exhibited good binding properties compared to methotrexate (-5.10 kcal/mol). Hence, these novel pyrimidine compounds are as lead compounds as antifungal, antitubercular and cytotoxic agents. © 2019 Chemical Publishing Co.. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Khoo H.E., Ng H.S., Yap W.-S., Goh H.J.H., Yim H.S.(2019)

he risk of macular degeneration can be reduced through the consumption of antioxidant-rich foods, supplements, and nutraceutical formulas. This review focuses on the antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that have been reported for reducing the risk of macular degeneration and other eye-related diseases. Antioxidants including anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavonoids, and vitamins have been shown to reduce the risk of eye-related diseases. Anthocyanins extracted from berries are powerful antioxidants. Cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and petunidin are anthocyanin aglycones detected in berries, currants, and other colored fruits and vegetables. β-Carotene, as well as xanthophyll lutein and zeaxanthin, have been reported to reduce the risk of macular degeneration. Flavonoids from plants help in the prevention of eye-related diseases through anti-inflammatory mechanisms. A combination of these antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals possess a synergistic effect on the prevention or risk reduction of macular degeneration. Formulas have been developed as dietary supplements to cater to the high demand from consumers and patients with eye problems. Many of the formulated dietary supplements that are sold in the market have been clinically proven for their efficacy to treat eye diseases. Although the bioactivities in the supplement capsules or tablets have been scientifically established for reducing risks of several diseases, which include macular degeneration and other eye-related diseases, knowledge on the right dosage, efficacy, and bioavailability of antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals is important for consumers. The information may help them make the best decision in choosing the right dietary supplements and nutraceuticals following the evidence-based recommended dosages and reference intakes for improving general health and preventing eye-related diseases. This review covers the potential causal factors involved in eye diseases, clinically proven treatments, and controversial findings on the antioxidants in the prevention of macular degeneration. Future studies should consider multiethnic and multicenter trials for eliminating potential bias in research. © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

[Full Article]

Razali N.S., Roslan N., Mansor M.H., Musirin I., Shaaya S.A., Jelani S.(2019)

This paper presents the application of compensating capacitors for optimal power flow in transmission system. The compensating capacitors are placed at suitable locations in the transmission system and the size of reactive power to be injected by the capacitors to the system is obtained using artificial immune system (AIS) optimization technique. AIS will find the best value of reactive power of the compensating capacitors so that the total system loss is minimum. It is found that applying the AIS optimization technique is prospective approach for finding optimal reactive power output of the installed compensating capacitors in controlling reactive power of transmission system. © 2019, World Academy of Research in Science and Engineering. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Lu G.-L., Lee M.T., Chiou L.-C.(2019)

Orexins (also called hypocretins) are implicated in reward and addiction, but little is known about their role(s) in the association between hippocampal synaptic plasticity and drug preference. Previously, we found that exogenous orexin via OX1 and OX2 receptors can impair low frequency stimulation-induced depotentiation, i.e. restoring potentiation of excitatory synaptic transmission (re-potentiation) in mouse hippocampal slices. Here, we found this re-potentiation in hippocampal slices from mice that had acquired conditioned place preference (CPP) to cocaine. Both 10 and 20 mg/kg of cocaine induced similar magnitudes of CPP in mice and re-potentiation in their hippocampal slices, but differed in their susceptibility to TCS1102, a dual (OX1 and OX2) orexin receptor antagonist. TCS1102 significantly attenuated CPP and hippocampal re-potentiation induced by cocaine at 10 mg/kg but not at 20 mg/kg. Nonetheless, SCH23390, an antagonist of dopamine D1-like receptors (D1-likeRs), inhibited the effects induced by both doses of cocaine. SKF38393, a D1-likeR-selective agonist, also induced hippocampal re-potentiation in vitro. Interestingly, this effect was attenuated by TCS1102. Conversely, SCH23390 prevented orexin A-induced hippocampal re-potentiation. These results suggest that endogenous orexins are released in mice during cocaine-CPP acquisition, which sustains potentiated hippocampal transmission via OX1/OX2 receptors and may contribute to the addiction memory of cocaine. This effect of endogenous orexins, however, may be substituted by dopamine that may dominate hippocampal re-potentiation and CPP via D1-likeRs when the reinforcing effect of cocaine is high. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction

[Full Article]

Hoo W.P.Y., Siak P.Y., In L.L.A.(2019)

The occurrence of somatic substitution mutations of the KRAS proto-oncogene is highly prevalent in certain cancer types, which often leads to constant activation of proliferative pathways and subsequent neoplastic transformation. It is often seen as a gateway mutation in carcinogenesis and has been commonly deemed as a predictive biomarker for poor prognosis and relapse when conventional chemotherapeutics are employed. Additionally, its mutational status also renders EGFR targeted therapies ineffective owing to its downstream location. Efforts to discover new approaches targeting this menacing culprit have been ongoing for years without much success, and with incidences of KRAS positive cancer patients being on the rise, researchers are now turning towards immunotherapies as the way forward. In this scoping review, recent immunotherapeutic developments and advances in both preclinical and clinical studies targeting K-ras directly or indirectly via its downstream signal transduction machinery will be discussed. Additionally, some of the challenges and limitations of various K-ras targeting immunotherapeutic approaches such as vaccines, adoptive T cell therapies, and checkpoint inhibitors against KRAS positive cancers will be deliberated. © 2019 Bentham Science Publishers.

[Full Article]

Rashidbenam Z., Jasman M.H., Hafez P., Tan G.H., Goh E.H., Fam X.I., Ho C.C.K., Zainuddin Z.M., Rajan R., Nor F.M., Shuhaili M.A., Kosai N.R., Imran F.H., Ng M.H.(2019)

BACKGROUND:: Urinary tract is subjected to a variety of disorders such as urethral stricture, which often develops as a result of scarring process. Urethral stricture can be treated by urethral dilation and urethrotomy; but in cases of long urethral strictures, substitution urethroplasty with genital skin and buccal mucosa grafts is the only option. However a number of complications such as infection as a result of hair growth in neo-urethra, and stone formation restrict the application of those grafts. Therefore, tissue engineering techniques recently emerged as an alternative approach, aiming to overcome those restrictions. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive coverage on the strategies employed and the translational status of urethral tissue engineering over the past years and to propose a combinatory strategy for the future of urethral tissue engineering. METHODs:: Data collection was based on the key articles published in English language in years between 2006 and 2018 using the searching terms of urethral stricture and tissue engineering on PubMed database. RESULTS:: Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into urothelial and smooth muscle cells to be used for urologic application does not offer any advantage over autologous urothelial and smooth muscle cells. Among studied scaffolds, synthetic scaffolds with proper porosity and mechanical strength is the best option to be used for urethral tissue engineering. CONCLUSION:: Hypoxia-preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells in combination with autologous cells seeded on a pre-vascularized synthetic and biodegradable scaffold can be said to be the best combinatory strategy in engineering of human urethra. © 2019, The Korean Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Society.

[Full Article]

Chew S.C., Tan C.P., Nyam K.L.(2019)

Kenaf seed oil has been suggested to be used as edible oil but there is limited information available about the oxidative stability of refined kenaf seed oil. An oxidative stability test was performed on crude and refined kenaf seed oil under accelerated storage at 65°C for 24 days. The results showed that refined oil underwent higher oxidation than the crude oil, as indicated by the peroxide value (40.55 meq/kg), p-Anisidine value (18.78) and total oxidation value (99.87) in refined oil at day 24. There was no significant difference in the free fatty acid value in refined oil during the accelerated storage. Oleic acid remained the most abundant in the fatty acid composition of kenaf seed oil, followed by linoleic acid and palmitic acid during storage. The unsaturated fatty acids decreased slightly coupled with a slight increase in the saturated fatty acids in kenaf seed oil during storage. Refining process decreased the oxidative stability of kenaf seed oil, but the refined kenaf seed oil was able to maintain good quality in free fatty acid value and fatty acid composition. © 2019 Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. All Rights Reserved.

[Full Article]

Yahya A.N., Zulkefly N.S., Baharudin R.(2019)

Introduction: Depressive symptoms are major public health issues with significantly increasing rates during adolescence. Specific factors and mechanisms associated with depressive symptoms still need to be identified. The present study aimed to examine direct relationships between paternal attachment and negative life events (NLE) to depressive symptoms. Indirect effect of automatic thoughts on the relationships was also examined. Methods: A sample of 1030 adolescents aged between 13 and 19 years (mean=15.36) was recruited using probability proportional to size cluster sampling from selected states in Peninsular Malaysia to complete self-report measures on the study variables. Results: Structural equation modelling indicated that paternal attachment in terms of secure, approachability and anxious fearful were directly associated to depressive symptoms. Broadly, increases in secure and approachability attachments followed by decreases in depressive symptoms. Adolescents who experienced anxious fearful attachment seemed to be more vulnerable to depressive symptoms. Moreover, results from mediation analyses revealed that automatic thoughts mediated the effect of two attachment variables (i.e., anxious fearful and responsiveness) and NLE to depressive symptoms. Conclusion: These findings shed light on the concurrent effects of attachment and life events on depressive symptoms, providing evidence on how to reduce depressive symptoms among adolescents. The current study also expands knowledge on the role of automatic thoughts as potentially relevant mediator. Intervention and prevention programs aimed at preventing adolescents from the deleterious effects of depressive symptoms should involve both parents and adolescents in order to promote optimal attachment relationships and minimize depressive cognitions in adolescents. © 2019 UPM Press. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Zhang C., Gao Y., Ning Z., Lu Y., Zhang X., Liu J., Xie B., Xue Z., Wang X., Yuan K., Ge X., Pan Y., Liu C., Tian L., Wang Y., Lu D., Hoh B.-P., Xu S.(2019)

Despite the tremendous growth of the DNA sequencing data in the last decade, our understanding of the human genome is still in its infancy. To understand the implications of genetic variants in the light of population genetics and molecular evolution, we developed a database, PGG.SNV (https://www.pggsnv.org), which gives much higher weight to previously under-investigated indigenous populations in Asia. PGG.SNV archives 265 million SNVs across 220,147 present-day genomes and 1018 ancient genomes, including 1009 newly sequenced genomes, representing 977 global populations. Moreover, estimation of population genetic diversity and evolutionary parameters is available in PGG.SNV, a unique feature compared with other databases. © 2019 The Author(s).

[Full Article]

Chan E.W.C., Wong S.K., Inoue T., Chan H.T.(2019)

The root bark of Morus alba L. or white mulberry is widely used as traditional medicine in China, Japan and Korea. Major classes and types of phenolic compounds isolated from the root bark are flavonoids (kuwanons, morusin, cyclomorusin and sanggenons), benzofurans (moracins and mulberrofurans), and stilbenoids (mulberrosides). Some of the flavonoids and benzofurans are products of Diel-Alder type adducts. Other classes of compounds include triterpenes, phenolic acids and coumarins. Morusin, a prenylated flavonoid, was first isolated from the root bark of M. alba, and later from the leaf, stem bark and twig of the plant. The potent anti-cancer properties of morusin have attracted much attention with research on-going and new findings being published. The compound inhibits angiogenesis, tumour progression and tumour migration, and triggers apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and autophagy in colorectal, cervical, prostate, breast, hepatoma, pancreatic, glioblastoma, gastric, ovarian and lung cancer cell lines. The anti-cancer activities of morusin are executed via various molecular targets and signalling pathways. It is anticipated that on-going in vitro studies will progress gradually to in vivo studies using animal models before efforts towards drug development can be initiated for clinical trials. © 2019 Journal of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University.

[Full Article]

Ting C.Y., Ting R.S.-K., Lim C.J., King T.L., Ting H., Gerofi J.(2019)

Objectives: This study compared the condom failure rate, safety and acceptability of two new synthetic adhesive male condoms, Wondaleaf-Cap® (WLC) and Wondaleaf-On-Man® (WLM), with a marketed latex external condom Durex®-Together (DT). Study design: We enrolled healthy married, monogamous, heterosexual condom users in a randomized controlled, cross-over, pilot trial in Malaysia. We randomized participants to six groups with different condom use-orders of the experimental WLC and WLM and control latex condom for four episodes for vaginal sex over 1 month for each condom type. We summarized the clinical and non-clinical failure rate, safety and acceptability of each condom type using descriptive statistics. We tested differences in condom failure and acceptability using generalized estimating equations and repeated measure ANOVA respectively. Results: We screened 75 couples and randomized 50 eligible couples. Two couples withdrew before receiving any condom. The remaining used 576 condoms with 192 uses for each condom variant. Clinical failure rates of WLC, WLM and DT were 1.04%, 0% and 0.52%, respectively. Non-clinical failure rates of WLC, WLM and DT were 2.08%, 3.12% and 1.04%, respectively. Removal was found more painful with Wondaleaf products than the DT. Preferences of participants for WLC, WLM and DT were 33.3%, 29.2% and 25%, respectively. Overall, WLC and DT had greater acceptances among male participants than WLM. Conclusion: Results of this pilot study support that use of synthetic adhesive male condoms is associated with failure rates similar to those seen with existing latex, and with greater acceptability. A larger study to ascertain non-inferiority is underway. Implications: The availability of synthetic adhesive male condoms may increase the acceptability of condom use. However, removal pain and clinical performance requires further study. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

[Full Article]

Fan P.-C., Kuo P.-H., Lee M.T., Chang S.-H., Chiou L.-C.(2019)

Background: Plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a key role in the migraine pathophysiology. This study aimed to investigate its role in predicting diagnosis and outcome of pharmacotherapy in pediatric migraine. Methods: We prospectively recruited 120 subjects, who never took migraine-preventive agents in a pediatric clinic, including 68 patients with migraine, 30 with non-migraine headache (NM), and 22 non-headache (NH) age-matched controls. Short-term therapeutic response was measured for at least 2 weeks after the start of therapy. Responders were defined with >50% headache reduction. Plasma CGRP concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results: In the migraine group, more patients required acute therapy, as compared to the NM group (62/68, 91% vs. 5/30, 15%, p = 0.001). The mean plasma CGRP level in migraineurs either during (291 ± 60 pg/ml) or between (240 ± 48) attacks was higher than in NM patients (51 ± 5 pg/ml, p = 0.006 and 0.018, respectively) and NH controls (53 ± 6 pg/ml, p = 0.016 and 0.045, respectively). Forty-seven patients (69%) needed preventive treatments and had higher plasma CGRP levels (364 ± 62 pg/ml, n = 47) than those not (183 ± 54 pg/ml, n = 21) (p = 0.031). Topiramate responders had higher plasma CGRP levels than non-responders (437 ± 131 pg/ml, n = 14 vs. 67 ± 19 pg/ml, n = 6, p = 0.021). Survival curves of plasma CGRP levels also showed those with higher CGRP levels responded better to topiramate. Differences were not found in the other preventives. Conclusion: The plasma CGRP level can differentiate migraine from non-migraine headache. It may also serve as a reference for the therapeutic strategy since it is higher in patients requiring migraine prevention and responsive to short-term topiramate treatment. These results are clinically significant, especially for the young children who cannot clearly describe their headache symptoms and may provide new insights into the clinical practice for the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric migraine. Copyright © 2019 Fan, Kuo, Lee, Chang and Chiou.

[Full Article]

Amini F., Thazin Oo N.M., Okechukwu P.N., Seghayat M.S., Ng E.S.C.(2019)

Background/Objectives: The unknown pathogenesis of periorbital hyperpigmentation makes its treatment difficult. Existing evidence links p53 and VEGFA genes with skin hyperpigmentation. This study was aimed at (i) identifying the clinical pattern of periorbital hyperpigmentation; and (ii) detecting the presence of VEGFA and P53 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in different subtypes of periorbital hyperpigmentation in Malaysian Chinese. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Malaysian Chinese. Clinical assessments were performed, and medical history was collected. Three regions of p53 and two of VEGFA were amplified by PCR followed by direct sequencing using saliva-extracted DNA. Results: Eighty-four participants were recruited (average age 22.2 years). In the majority (n = 62), both eyelids were affected. Facial pigmentary, demarcation lines, tear trough and eye bags were not observed. Mixed (pigmented–vascular) was the most common subtype. Thirteen SNPs were found, nine of which are new. Only three out of 13 SNPs showed significant association with periorbital hyperpigmentation presentation. TA genotype in rs1437756379 (p53) was significantly more prevalent among participants with mixed subtype (P = 0.011) while AC genotype in rs1377053612 (VEGFA) was significantly more prevalent among pigmented subtype (P = 0.028). AA genotype in rs1479430148 (VEGFA) was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis in mixed subtype (P = 0.012). Conclusion: Mixed subtype was the most prevalent type of periorbital hyperpigmentation in the study population. Three polymorphisms in p53 and VEGFA genes were statistically linked with different clinical presentations of periorbital hyperpigmentation. © 2018 The Australasian College of Dermatologists

[Full Article]

Yap W.L., Ng C.M., Kaur S.(2019)

This study aimed to determine the differences in dietary intake and quality between normalweight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) young adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A case-control study was conducted among 294 private universities students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Respondents completed a set of questionnaire and 3 days 24-hr dietary recall. Weight, height, body fat percentage (%BF), visceral fat, and waist circumference of respondents were measured. Dietary intake of respondents was analyzed and their diet quality was evaluated using a healthy eating index (HEI) scale. Findings displayed OW/OB group had significantly higher energy, macronutrient, sugar, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intake (p < 0.001) than NW group. The total HEI score was signi.cantly lower in OW/OB group [45.14 (11.13)] than NW group [51.43 (11.61)]. This was affected by component scores of percentages (%) of energy from fat (p < 0.001) and saturated fat (p = 0.023), cholesterol and sodium intake (p < 0.001) with OW/OB had significantly lower score than NW group. However, OW/OB group achieved a significantly higher component score for cereals (p < 0.001) and meat food groups (p = 0.005) than NW group. HEI analysis also displayed both groups achieved low component scores for fruits, vegetables, milk, and food variety. Although OW/OB group had poorer diet quality than NW group, both groups had low consumption of fruits, vegetables, milk, and less varied diet. Therefore, there is a need for educational campaigns on food groups' diversification especially in increasing nutrient-dense food in their diet to increase awareness in healthy eating among young adults. © 2019 Universiti Putra Malaysia. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Hami R., Hassan M.H.M., Kadir A.A., Ismail H.C., Bachok N.(2019)

Introduction: Geriatric Giants are the impairment that appear in older people. It comprises of impaired cognition, urinary incontinence, instability, fall and immobility. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Geriatric Giants among older people living in three different living environment; own home, pondok and old folks home. Methods: This comparative study involved 471 respondents from Kelantan. There were 157 participants each from own home, pondok and old folks home. The prevalence of Geriatric Giants were determine by 10 minutes comprehensive screening which was developed to diagnose and manage the Geriatric Giants (WHO, 2007) and prevalence were compared using chi-square tests or Fisher exact test. Results: Prevalence of dementia among respondents of old folks home (11.5%), pondok (6.4%) and own home (0.6%). Prevalence of urinary incontinence among respondents of own home (22.3%), old folks home (16.6%) and pondok (14.0%). Prevalence of instability among respondents of old folk home (31.2%), pondok (27.4%) and own home (14.0%). Prevalence of fall among respondents of pondok (33.1%), old folks home (24.25) and own home (19.7%). Old folk home respondents had the highest prevalence of moderate and severe immobility There were significant difference in prevalence of dementia ((Fisher exact p value <0.001), instability (χ2(2)=13.957,p=0.001), fall (χ2(2)=7.629,p=0.022) and mild and moderate immobility. Conclusion: Old folks home respondents had more prevalence of Geriatric Giants compared to their other counter parts. © 2019 UPM Press. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Muslim A., Sofian S.M., Shaari S.A., Hoh B.-P., Lim Y.A.-L.(2019)

Background Formerly known as the Malaysian hunter gatherers, the Negrito Orang Asli (OA) were heavily dependent on the forest for sustenance and early studies indicated high prevalence of intestinal parasitism. Initiation of a redevelopment program in the 1970s aimed to demarginalize the OA was expected to reduce soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Gradually, the OA were relocated to new resettlement areas at the peripheries. The aim of this study was to compare STH infections between Negritos who are still living in the inland jungle with those living in resettlements. Methodology/Principal findings A total of 416 Negrito participants were grouped into two categories of communities based on location; Inland Jungle Villages (IJV); and Resettlement Plan Scheme (RPS). Iodine wet mount, formalin-ether sedimentation, modified Trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining and Kato-Katz methods were performed on stool samples. A questionnaire was used to collect information regarding demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and hygiene behaviors. Prevalence of STH was significantly higher in IJV (91.3%) versus RPS (83.1%) (P = 0.02). However, the percentage of individuals with severe intensity of Trichuris trichiura infections was significantly higher in the RPS (17.2%) compared to IJV (6.5%) (P = 0.01). Severe Ascaris lumbricoides infection was observed at 20.0% amongst RPS Negritos and 15.0% amongst IJV (P = 0.41). Whilst for hookworm infection, both prevalence and individuals with moderate to severe infections were higher in the IJV (26.2%, 41.0%) versus RPS (18.7%, 24.0%) (P values = 0.08, 0.09), accordingly. The prevalence other intestinal parasitic infections (e.g. Entamoeba sp., Blastocystis and flukes) was also higher in IJV versus RPS. Apart from poor hygienic behaviors as significant risk factors in both communities, low socio-economic status was highly associated with STH infections in RPS (P<0.001) but not significantly associated in IJV. Conclusions The findings showed that ex situ development plan by RPS has not profoundly contributed to the STH reduction among the OA. Conversely, burden rate of T. trichiura infections increased due to their extreme poverty and poor hygienic behaviors. Here, we are suggesting biannual mass albendazole intervention (triple dose regimens in RPS, but a single dose in IJV) and community empowerment to both communities. For a long-term and better uptake, these strategies must be done together with the community input and participation, respecting their traditional customs and accompanied by recruitment of more OA people in the health-care taskforce. © 2019 Muslim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

[Full Article]

Cong C.W., Ling W.S., Aun T.S.(2019)

Adolescence is a developmental phase marked by a high risk of depressive symptoms. The Diathesis-Stress Model of Depression proposed that different types of coping strategy can determine depression level in individuals differently. It was found that low self-esteem is linked with greater depressive symptoms among adolescents. Although past studies have discovered the effects of problem-focused coping on depression, there are limited studies examining the underlying mechanism among Malaysian adolescents. Thus, the present study investigated the intervening role of self-esteem on the association between problem-focused coping and depression among adolescents. A total of 852 secondary school students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were recruited through multi-stage cluster sampling. Participants filled out self-reported questionnaires on depression, self-esteem, and problem-focused coping. SPSS macro was used to analyze the mediation model. The findings showed both self-esteem and problem-focused coping negatively correlated with adolescents’ depression. Self-esteem in turn partially mediated the association between problem-focused coping and adolescents’ depression. Thus, it is recommended that intervention on reducing depressive symptoms should focus on providing adolescents with the skills to use problem-focused coping. Workshops could be conducted to heighten adolescents’ self-esteem through the help of teachers, parents and school counselors in reducing depressive symptoms among adolescents. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

[Full Article]

Yan M.K., Lean C.L.Y.(2019)

Over the last decade, the market for vegetarian food and consumers‘ demand for functional food has been growing along with the rising health awareness. Chia seeds with profound nutritional benefits are getting more recognized due to their high alpha-linolenic acid, high dietary fiber and high protein. They have the potential to be food additive for industrial uses due to their water holding capacity and amazing gelling properties. In this study, vegetable balls incorporated with chia seeds were developed using allergen-free plant-derived ingredients as the base, while eggplant and chia seeds were used as the major binder. Chia seeds gel was incorporated at 0% (control), 10% (F1), 20% (F2) and 30% (F3) to substitute eggplant in the vegetable balls. The effects of chia seeds incorporation on the proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and dietary fiber), cooking characteristics (cooking yield and moisture retention) and physical properties (texture, colour, pH and water activity) of vegetable balls were then investigated. Results indicated that F3 had significantly lower moisture content (59.85%), higher protein (5.89%), fat (2.99%) and ash content (3.19%) in comparison to the control. Total dietary fiber of F3 (14.5%) was higher than control (12.3%). There were no statistical differences in cooking yield, moisture retention, pH and water activity. Texture of F3 was significantly softer, less springy, more cohesive and adhesive than control, associated with the water holding capacity of the seeds. For colour, F3 had significantly higher L* value than control. F3 could represent a healthy and nutritional snacks food to the existing food industry and vegetarian market. © 2019, Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Al-Nema M.Y., Gaurav A.(2019)

Background: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that play a key role in terminating cyclic nucleotides signalling by catalysing the hydrolysis of 3’, 5’- cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and/or 3’, 5’ cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), the second messengers within the cell that transport the signals produced by extracellular signalling molecules which are unable to get into the cells. However, PDEs are proteins which do not operate alone but in complexes that made up of a many proteins. Objective: This review highlights some of the general characteristics of PDEs and focuses mainly on the Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) of selected PDE enzymes. The objective is to review the role of PPIs in the specific mechanism for activation and thereby regulation of certain biological functions of PDEs. Methods: The article discusses some of the PPIs of selected PDEs as reported in recent scientific literature. These interactions are critical for understanding the biological role of the target PDE. Results: The PPIs have shown that each PDE has a specific mechanism for activation and thereby regulation a certain biological function. Conclusion: Targeting of PDEs to specific regions of the cell is based on the interaction with other proteins where each PDE enzyme binds with specific protein(s) via PPIs. © 2019 Bentham Science Publishers.

[Full Article]

Teoh S.-H., Khoo J.-J., Abdul Salam D.S.D., Peh S.-C., Cheah S.-C.(2019)

Introduction: Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is associated with several B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), but the role of EBV in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is poorly defined. Several studies indicated the expression of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) is predominant in EBV(+)DLBCL, of which its activated form can promote the downstream oncogenes expression such as c-MYC. c-MYC gene rearrangements are frequently found in aggressive lymphoma with inferior prognosis. Furthermore, EBV is a co-factor of MYC dysregulation. JAK1/STAT3 could be the downstream pathway of EBV and deregulates MYC. To confirm the involvement of EBV in JAK1/ STAT3 activation and MYC deregulation, association of EBV, pSTAT3 and MYC in EBV(+)DLBCL cases were studied. The presence of pSTAT3 and its upstream proteins: pJAK1 is identify to delineate the role of EBV in JAK1/STAT3 pathway. Materials and Methods:51 cases of DLBCL paraffin-embedded tissue samples were retrieved from a single private hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. EBER-ISH was performed to identify the EBV expression; ten EBV(+)-DLBCL cases subjected to immunohistochemistry for LMP1, pJAK1, pSTAT3 and MYC; FISH assay for c-MYC gene rearrangement. Results: Among 10 cases of EBV(+)-DLBCL, 90% were non-GCB subtype (p=0.011), 88.9% expressed LMP1. 40% EBV(+)-DLBCL had pJAK1 expression. Conclusion: 66.7% EBV(+)-DLBCL showed the positivity of pSTAT3, which implies the involvement of EBV in constitutive JAK/STAT pathway. 44.5% EBV(+)-DLBCL have co-expression of pSTAT3 and MYC, but all EBV(+)-DLBCL was absence with c-MYC gene rearrangement. The finding of clinical samples might shed lights to the lymphomagenesis of EBV associated with non-GCB subtypes, and the potential therapy for pSTAT3-mediated pathway. © 2019, Malaysian Society of Pathologists. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Tung S.E.H., Mohd Nasir M.T., Chin Y.S., Zalilah M.S., Zubaidah J.O., Yim H.S.(2019)

Background: Recent research suggests that a negative relationship exists between adiposity and cognitive function in children. However, limited information is known on how they are related. This study aimed to examine the mediators of the relationship between overweight/obesity and cognitive function among school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional comparison study whereby 225 overweight/obese children matched for age, sex, and ethnicity with 225 normal weight children participated in this study. Body image dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and depressive symptoms were assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured, whereas blood was drawn to determine insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), glucose, and lipid profiles. Homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated using glucose and insulin levels. Wechsler's Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was used to assess cognitive function in children. Ordinary least square regression analysis was conducted to determine the direct and indirect relationships between weight status and cognitive function. Results: A negative relationship was found between overweight/obesity with cognitive function. Overweight/obese children were on average 4.075 units lower in cognitive function scores compared to normal weight children. Such difference was found through mediators, such as body image dissatisfaction, disordered eating, depression, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, and hs-CRP, contributing 22.2% of the variances in cognitive function in children. Conclusion: Results highlight the important mediators of the relationship between overweight/obesity and cognitive function. Consequently, future interventions should target to improve psychological well-being and reduce cardiovascular disease risk for the prevention of poorer cognitive performance in overweight/obese children. © Copyright 2019, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers 2019.

[Full Article]

Melisa A.S., Normina A.B., Tan E.S.S., Seghayat M.S.(2019)

The loss of cognitive capability is a serious problem affecting the elderly population globally. This study aimed to determine different perspectives on cognitive stimulating activity and the engagement in different types of cognitive stimulating activity in order to preserving cognitive reserve among the elderly in Malaysia. CRI questionnaire and IQCODE had been used to assess the level of cognitive reserve in a lifetime and cognitive decline in the elderly, respectively. Data analysis was done using the SPSS 18.0 version, t-test analysis and Pearson’s correlation. Result showed that, the group aged between 61 and 65 also exhibited higher CRI education (F=6.41, p<0.05), CRI leisure time (F=25.72, p<0.01) and CRI working activity (F=43.61, p<0.01) than the other two groups. Participants aged up to 60 years had higher CRI score (M=109.49, SD=15.20) than those aged up to 65 years (M=99.35, SD=11.45) as well as those aged up to 70 years (M=90.51, SD=16.13). All the post-hoc comparisons were significant at 0.05 level, where F=34.7 and p<0.001. In conclusion, results revealed that the adults who participate in brain stimulation activities such as reading magazines and exercise have reduced chances of developing cognitive related conditions. Elderly people who were found to have worked on the professional and intellectual jobs have low chances of developing cognitive problems than those in unskilled manual jobs. © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reseved.

[Full Article]

Chyi L.W., Tan E.S.S., Lee C.K., Rehman N., Chao L.W., Keat T.C.(2019)

Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is a common hair loss disease with genetic predisposition among men and women. AGA may start any age after puberty and is affecting one’s social aspects as well as significantly impacted psychological and overall of quality of life. Medically, AGA is considered a mild dermalogical illness. However, those suffering from the illness might feel that alopecia is a serious condition with major distress in life and how other people view them as well as their employment opportunities. As hair is a crucial component of one’s appearance and self-identity, patients with androgenic alopecia (AGA) may experience a self-confident distorted and negative feelings of social disadvantages, dissatisfaction, embarrassment, and lack of self-confidence. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of life among local adults with androgenic alopecia, using 2 validated questionnaires: The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and the Hairdex Score System (HSS). Association between quality of life in AGA patients with gender, age group, marital status and employment status was also evaluated. This cross-sectional study was conducted among adults with androgenic alopecia visiting a private clinic in Cheras, Selangor. In this research study, 125 patients (84 male and 41 females) (aged 20 years and above) completed 2 validated questionnaires, DLQI and HSS. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) is used in this study. The results showed that quality of life impairment increases with increasing severity of androgenic alopecia. (p=0. 000). Males had higher impairment of quality of life than females. (p=0. 000) The quality of life in employed patients was more impaired than the unemployed. (P<0.01) The study can conclude that Androgenic Alopecia shows a considerable impact on quality of life among adults. © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reseved.

[Full Article]

Yau Xin Y., Lokesh B.V.S.(2019)

Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) is widely used globally to treat pain, rheumatic fever and inflammation since more than a century. It is also a prototypical molecule categorized as a platelet aggregation inhibitor, that could be widely used to reduce the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis in long term therapy. Various ASA formulations are available in the market and estimation of their quantity and efficacy is of utmost importance since it is largely being produced by many pharmaceutical companies all over the world. Literature is supported with many analytical methods using UV-visible spectrophotometer, liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography integrated with mass spectrometer (LC-MS), UHPLCMS/MS, Gas chromatography, electrochemical and titrimetric methods. In this study, an Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) method was developed for the estimation of ASA in tablets and validated as per ICH guidelines. The calibration curve was constructed on peak height location at a specific wavenumber of 1750 cm-1 (Strong C=O stretching vibration of ASA) in the concentration range from 1-100 (%w/w) with a correlation coefficient of 1.000. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.94 (%w/w) and 0.31 (%w/w), respectively. The method was found to be precise over a range of 10- 100%, with intra-day and inter-day precision values were estimated as 0.94 and 8.26 respectively. The percentage of mean recovery was estimated at 103.04 ±2.58 with margin of error (± 2.50%) at 95% confidence interval. This new method was used for the quantification of ASA in tablets and percentage of labeled amount was found within the range of 103.04 ±2.58. No significant interference was observed by excipients in the tablet formulation during the spectral analysis. © 2019 Indian Drug Manufacturers' Association. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Kumar P.V., Maki M.A.A., Wei Y.S., Tatt L.M., Elumalai M., Cheah S.-C., Raghavan B., Majeed A.B.B.A.(2019)

Background: Recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rHuKGF) has gained considerable attention by researchers as epithelial cells proliferating agent. Moreover, intravenous truncated rHuKGF (palifermin) has been approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat and prevent chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis and small intestine ulceration. The labile structure and short circulation time of rHuKGF in-vivo are the main obstacles that reduce the oral bioactivity and dosage of such proteins at the target site. Objective: Formulation of methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate copolymer-coated capsules filled with chitosan nanoparticles loaded with rHuKGF for oral delivery. Methods: We report on chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) with diameter < 200 nm, prepared by ionic gelation, loaded with rHuKGF and filled in methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate copolymer-coated capsules for oral delivery. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined based on the serum levels of rHuKGF, following a single intravenous (IV) or oral dosages using a rabbit model. Furthermore, fluorescent microscope imaging was conducted to investigate the cellular uptake of the rhodamine-labelled rHuKGF-loaded nanoparticles. The proliferation effect of the formulation on FHs 74 Int cells was studied as well by MTT assay. Results: The mucoadhesive and absorption enhancement properties of chitosan and the protective effect of methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate copolymer against rHuKGF release at the stomach, low pH, were combined to promote and ensure rHuKGF intestinal delivery and increase serum levels of rHuKGF. In addition, in-vitro studies revealed the protein bioactivity since rHuKGF-loaded CNPs significantly increased the proliferation of FHs 74 Int cells. Conclusion: The study revealed that oral administration of rHuKGF–loaded CNPs in methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate copolymer-coated capsules is practically alternative to the IV administration since the absolute bioavailability of the orally administered rHuKGF–loaded CNPs, using the rabbit as animal model, was 69%. Fluorescent microscope imaging revealed that rhodamine-labelled rHuKGF-loaded CNPs were taken up by FHs 74 Int cells, after 6 hours’ incubation time, followed by increase in the proliferation rate. © 2019 Bentham Science Publishers

[Full Article]

Ali M., Naureen H., Tariq M.H., Farrukh M.J., Usman A., Khattak S., Ahsan H.(2019)

Background: Intensive care units (ICUs) are specialized units where patients with critical conditions are admitted for getting specialized and individualized medical treatment. High mortality rates have been observed in ICUs, but the exact reason and factors affecting the mortality rates have not yet been studied in the local population in Pakistan. Aim: This study was aimed to determine rational use of antibiotic therapy in ICU patients and its impact on clinical outcomes and mortality rate. Methods: This was a retrospective, longitudinal (cohort) study including 100 patients in the ICU of the largest tertiary care hospital of the capital city of Pakistan. Results: It was observed that empiric antibiotic therapy was initiated in 68% of patients, while culture sensitivity test was conducted for only 19% of patients. Thirty-percent of patients developed nosocomial infections and empiric antibiotic therapy was not initiated for those patients (P<0.05). Irrational antibiotic prescribing was observed in 86% of patients, and among them, 96.5% mortality was observed (P<0.05). The overall mortality rate was 83%; even higher mortality rates were observed in patients on a ventilator, patients with serious drug–drug interactions, and patients prescribed with irrational antibiotics or nephrotoxic drugs. Adverse clinical outcomes leading to death were observed to be significantly associated (P<0.05) with irrational antibiotic prescribing, nonadjustment of doses of nephrotoxic drugs, use of steroids, and major drug–drug interactions. Conclusion: It was concluded that empiric antibiotic therapy is beneficial in patients and leads to a reduction in the mortality rate. Factors including irrational antibiotic selection, prescribing contraindicated drug combinations, and use of nephrotoxic drugs were associated with high mortality rate and poor clinical outcomes. © 2019 Ali et al.

[Full Article]

Chan E.W.C., Wong C.W., Tan Y.H., Foo J.P.Y., Wong S.K., Chan H.T.(2019)

Both resveratrol and pterostilbene are monomeric stilbenes having a 6-2-6 carbon skeleton with two phenyl rings linked by a double-bonded ethylene bridge. Resveratrol has three hydroxyl (-OH) groups, while pterostilbene has two methoxy (-OCH3) groups and one -OH group. They commonly occur in the trans form rather than the cis form. Red grapes and red wines are the main dietary sources of the resveratrol. Pterostilbene occurs in blueberries and grapes. Resveratrol and pterostilbene exhibit many similarities in pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, neuroprotective anti-cancer, cardioprotective, analgesic, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity activities. The stronger pharmacological properties in pterostilbene than resveratrol have been attributed to its two -OCH3 groups. As a result, pterostilbene is more lipophilic which enhances its membrane permeability, bioavailability, and biological potency. Some future studies on resveratrol and pterostilbene are suggested. The sources of information cited in this comparative overview were from Science Direct, Google Scholar, and PubMed. © 2019 Eric Wei Chiang Chan et al.

[Full Article]

Kaur S., Ng C.M., Badon S.E., Jalil R.A., Maykanathan D., Yim H.S., Jan Mohamed H.J.(2019)

Background: Low birth weight prevalence in Malaysia remains high. Socioeconomic background may lead to differences in physical activity and maternal nutritional status, which may play an important role in birth outcomes. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study aimed to identify rural-urban differences in risk factors for low birth weight among women in Malaysia. Pregnant women at ≥20 weeks of gestation in urban and rural Malaysia (n = 437) completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity. Weight and middle-upper arm circumference were measured. Infant birth outcomes were extracted from medical records. Results: The overall prevalence of low birth weight infants was 6.38%. Rural women had more low birth weight infants than urban women (9.8% vs 2.0%, p = 0.03). Findings showed rural women were less sedentary (p = 0.003) and participated in more household/caregiving activities (p = 0.036), sports activities (p = 0.01) and less occupational activity (p < 0.001) than urban women. Logistic regression revealed that older age (OR = 1.395, 95% Cl = 1.053 to 1.846), low parity (OR = 0.256, 95% Cl = 0.088-0.747) and low middle-upper arm circumference (OR = 0.738, 95% Cl = 0.552 to 0.987) increased the risk of low birth weight infants in rural, but not in urban women. Conclusions: We observed differences in risk factors for low birth weight between urban and rural pregnant women. Age, malnutrition and low parity were risk factors for low birth weight among rural pregnant women. Our findings suggest that rural pregnant women with low nutritional status should be encouraged to monitor their middle-upper arm circumference consistently throughout pregnancy. Improving nutritional status in rural pregnant women may reduce the risk of low birth weight infants in this population. © 2019 The Author(s).

[Full Article]

Chan E.W.C., Lim C.S.S., Lim W.Y., Loong Z.J., Wong C.W.(2019)

Scutellarin is a flavone glycoside isolated from Erigeron breviscapus, a perennial herb of the daisy family Asteraceae. The scutellarin-rich extract of E. breviscapus, known as breviscapine, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to improve blood circulation and cerebral blood supply. There is increasing scientific evidence affirming that scutellarin possesses pharmacological properties, notably, anti-cancer properties. This review is focused on scutellarin, its chemistry, and anti-cancer properties. Scutellarin induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and inhibits proliferation and progression of a wide spectrum of human cancer cells. Of particular interest are the multiple molecular targets and pathways of scutellarin, structure-activity relationships of its cytotoxicity, and future research. Sources of information were from ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and PubMed. © 2019 Eric W. C. Chan et al.

[Full Article]

Hashim M.M., Taha M.S., Aman A.H.M., Hashim A.H.A., Rahim M.S.M., Islam S.(2019)

The awareness to secure medical data has significantly increased. Steganographic has binged an important topic especially in this area since it has the capability to avoid medical data breach. This paper proposes a new steganography scheme based on Bit Invert System (BIS) using three control random parameters. The random selection process is performed based on Henon Map Function (HMF). In order to increase the security level, affine cipher and Huffman method is used for encryption as well as to minimize the encrypt data prior to the embedding for high payload ability. This integration is effective due to two main reasons: first, checking, and mapping to determine 0- and 1-bits during embedding, and second, segmenting the secret data to track and map every bit in stego image. The results showed that the presented scheme can assure confidentiality and security of the medical data while maintaining the image quality. © 2019 IEEE.

[Full Article]

Rosengren A., Smyth A., Rangarajan S., Ramasundarahettige C., Bangdiwala S.I., AlHabib K.F., Avezum A., Bengtsson Boström K., Chifamba J., Gulec S., Gupta R., Igumbor E.U., Iqbal R., Ismail N., Joseph P., Kaur M., Khatib R., Kruger I.M., Lamelas P., Lanas(2019)

Background: Socioeconomic status is associated with differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease incidence and outcomes, including mortality. However, it is unclear whether the associations between cardiovascular disease and common measures of socioeconomic status—wealth and education—differ among high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries, and, if so, why these differences exist. We explored the association between education and household wealth and cardiovascular disease and mortality to assess which marker is the stronger predictor of outcomes, and examined whether any differences in cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status parallel differences in risk factor levels or differences in management. Methods: In this large-scale prospective cohort study, we recruited adults aged between 35 years and 70 years from 367 urban and 302 rural communities in 20 countries. We collected data on families and households in two questionnaires, and data on cardiovascular risk factors in a third questionnaire, which was supplemented with physical examination. We assessed socioeconomic status using education and a household wealth index. Education was categorised as no or primary school education only, secondary school education, or higher education, defined as completion of trade school, college, or university. Household wealth, calculated at the household level and with household data, was defined by an index on the basis of ownership of assets and housing characteristics. Primary outcomes were major cardiovascular disease (a composite of cardiovascular deaths, strokes, myocardial infarction, and heart failure), cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. Information on specific events was obtained from participants or their family. Findings: Recruitment to the study began on Jan 12, 2001, with most participants enrolled between Jan 6, 2005, and Dec 4, 2014. 160 299 (87·9%) of 182 375 participants with baseline data had available follow-up event data and were eligible for inclusion. After exclusion of 6130 (3·8%) participants without complete baseline or follow-up data, 154 169 individuals remained for analysis, from five low-income, 11 middle-income, and four high-income countries. Participants were followed-up for a mean of 7·5 years. Major cardiovascular events were more common among those with low levels of education in all types of country studied, but much more so in low-income countries. After adjustment for wealth and other factors, the HR (low level of education vs high level of education) was 1·23 (95% CI 0·96–1·58) for high-income countries, 1·59 (1·42–1·78) in middle-income countries, and 2·23 (1·79–2·77) in low-income countries (pinteraction<0·0001). We observed similar results for all-cause mortality, with HRs of 1·50 (1·14–1·98) for high-income countries, 1·80 (1·58–2·06) in middle-income countries, and 2·76 (2·29–3·31) in low-income countries (pinteraction<0·0001). By contrast, we found no or weak associations between wealth and these two outcomes. Differences in outcomes between educational groups were not explained by differences in risk factors, which decreased as the level of education increased in high-income countries, but increased as the level of education increased in low-income countries (pinteraction<0·0001). Medical care (eg, management of hypertension, diabetes, and secondary prevention) seemed to play an important part in adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes because such care is likely to be poorer in people with the lowest levels of education compared to those with higher levels of education in low-income countries; however, we observed less marked differences in care based on level of education in middle-income countries and no or minor differences in high-income countries. Interpretation: Although people with a lower level of education in low-income and middle-income countries have higher incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease, they have better overall risk factor profiles. However, these individuals have markedly poorer health care. Policies to reduce health inequities globally must include strategies to overcome barriers to care, especially for those with lower levels of education. Funding: Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments). © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license

[Full Article]

Masilamani R., Aung M.M.T., Othman H., Abu Bakar A., Keat T.C., Ravichandran S., Wing L.K., Hong C.W., Hong L.K., Elson N., Wayna T.J., Selvathurai V., Xuan T.Z., Jagajarantan S.P.(2019)

Literature has documented that student nurses undergo stress in their academic and clinical setting. This raises concerns because stress during undergraduate training may result in psychological or emotional impairment during the nurses' professional life and ultimately affect the quality of patient care. The Objective of the study was to study the prevalence of stress, and the association between sociodemographic factors, stressors and coping strategies with stress. This was a cross-sectional study on 96-year 1-3 nursing students from a government university done between 2015-2018. Bahasa Malaysia translated The General Health Questionnaire, Stressors in Nursing Student Scale Questionnaire and Brief COPE Questionnaire was used in this study. This study had Malay (95.9%) and female (91.7%) dominated population. The prevalence of stress in student nurses was 25%. No association was reported between sociodemographic factors and stress. Among the 4 stressors educational, clinical, confidence and financial, clinical stressor scored the highest mean 6.40 (SD±3.66). Confidence stressor (AOR=1.26 95% CI 1.04-1.53) was the only stressor associated with stress. The top 3 coping strategies practiced by the student nurses were religion (praying), acceptance and planning. Self-blame (AOR 8.18 95% CI 1.86-35.91) was the only coping strategy associated with stress. Stress management programmes, and workshops on stress and coping strategies should be conducted yearly to ensure a well-balanced environment for good learning experiences and prevent stress related health problems and improved academic performance. © 2019, Malaysian Public Health Physicians Association.

[Full Article]

Choo K.Y., Ong Y.Y., Lim R.L.H., Tan C.P., Ho C.W.(2019)

Betacyanins are bioactive dietary phytochemicals which can be found in red dragon fruit (RDF). Therefore, the bioaccessibility of betacyanins that present in fermented red dragon fruit drink (RDFD) and pressed red dragon fruit juice (RDFJ) was accessed in simulated gastric and intestinal digestion. Results disclosed that betacyanins from RDFD and RDFJ suffered minor loss (< 25%) at gastric-like environment but greater loss was observed during the intestinal phase digestion. After subjected to intestinal digestion, RDFD retained 46.42% of betanin while RDFJ retained 43.76%, with betanin concentration of 17.12 mM and 12.37 mM, respectively. Findings also revealed that RDFD exhibited higher antioxidant capacity compared to RDFJ after subjected to intestinal digestion, with values of 0.88 mM Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and 0.85 mM TEAC, respectively. The data suggests that betacyanins that present in RDF are bioaccessible while fermentation able to enhance the bioavailability with more betacyanins retained after intestinal digestion. © 2019, The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology.

[Full Article]

Lokesh B.V.S., Prasad Y.R., Shaik A.B.(2019)

A series of new pyrazolines containing 2,5-dichloro-3-acetylthiophene chalcone moiety (PZT1-PZT20) have been synthesized, characterized by1 HNMR and13 CNMR and evaluated for them in vitro antitubercular activity against M. tuberculosis H37 Rv strain and in vitro anticancer activity against DU-145 prostate cancer cell lines. Majority of screened compounds have displayed potential activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MTB) strain and anticancer activity against DU-149 prostate cancer cell lines. Among the series, compound PZT5 with 2”, 4”-dichlorophenyl group at 5-position on the pyrazoline ring exhibited the most potent antitubercular activity (MIC=1.60 µg/mL) and compounds PZT2, PZT9, PZT11, PZT15, and PZT20 showed similar antitubercular activity against standard pyrazinamide (MIC=3.12 µg/mL) by broth dilution assay. PZT15 and PZT17 with 4”-pyridinyl and 2”-pyrrolyl groups on pyrazoline ring were found to exhibit better anticancer activity against DU-149 prostate cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 2.0±0.2 µg/mL and 6.0±0.3 µg/mL respectively by MTT assay. The preliminary structure-activity relationship has been summarized. The molecular docking studies with crystalline structures of enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase InhA interaction with target protein (2NSD; PDB and 3FNG; PDB) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MTB) strain have also exhibited good ligand interaction and binding affinity. Ligand interaction and binding affinity were estimated using crystal structures of both types of enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase InhA (3FNG.pdb) and found to be much higher (-16.70 to-19.20 kcal/mol) compared with pyrazinamide (-10.70 kcal/mol) as a standard target molecule. Whereas the binding affinities of six active compounds with crystal structure of other type of enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase InhA (2NSD.pdb) were much similar and higher (-9.30 to-11.20 kcal/mole) than pyrazinamide (-11.10 kcal/mole). These new pyrazolines would be promising potent inhibitors of drug sensitive and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain and potential anticancer agents against prostate cancer and other prototypes of cancers. © 2019 Bentham Science Publishers.

[Full Article]

Thomas N.S.(2019)

Introduction: This study analyses the role of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi’s (1877-1960) collection of works called Risale-i Nur from the linguistic and psychological perspectives. Nursi is an influential Muslim scholar and thinker of the late Ottoman and Modern Turkey who has influenced his audience to implement positive actions. Nursi influences his audience through his persuasive discourse which is rich in metaphorical language that gives a positive impact on them. Methods: This metaphorical approach is known in Islamic social science methodology as “tamthil.” However, studies on Nursi’s thoughts and writings that arouse millions of people within and outside Turkey for psychological wellbeing are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to explain how Nursi persuades his audience in the positive direction that leads to psychological wellbeing through spiritual effects. This interdisciplinary study uses a qualitative research method based on an explanatory case study to analyse how Nursi’s audience emerged and developed rapidly through his Risale-i Nur. It is narrowed down to analyse Nursi’s metaphorical linguistic expressions from his conceptualisation of life based on Lakoff and Johnson’s Conceptual Metaphor theory. Nursi’s expressions that induce positive emotions are analysed based on the method of Risale-i Nur from the Quran by inserting Seligman’s positive psychological wellbeing theory. Results: The findings reveal the role of Risale-i Nur in influencing audience spiritually for a psychological wellbeing. Conclusion: This study contributes to the importance of language and persuasion for positive changes and it is expected to benefit speakers, writers and researchers who are analysing similar discourse. © 2019 UPM Press. All rights reserved.

[Full Article]

Lee Siew-Keah, Chua Ang Lim, Chia Kam Weng, Lee Chew Kek, Lee Bang Rom, Lim Chai Leng, Tan Geok Puan(2019)

Introduction: Identifying the causes of periorbital hyperpigmentation is crucial in selecting the best treatment. The identification of transcriptional profiles that may be related to hyperpigmentation around the eye area could contribute to a new approach in the treatment of periorbital hyperpigmentation – the gene therapy. Objective: This study aims to assess the transcriptional profile of melanogenesis, and genes related to enzymatic antioxidants in skins with periorbital hyperpigmentation. Methods: Based on clinical evaluation, 49 healthy volunteers were classified with or without periorbital hyperpigmentation. Genetic profiles of melanogenesis-related genes: microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase 1-related protein (TYRP1), and intracellular antioxidants - glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1), glutathione s-transferase (GST-1) - were determined by the polymerase chain reaction technique in real-time. Results: MITF, TYR, and TYRP1 gene expressions were significantly higher in the periorbital hyperpigmentation group (p<0.01). GR, GPx-1, and GST-1 gene expressions were comparable between the groups with and without periorbital hyperpigmentation. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that MITF is the primary regulator of melanin deposition in skins with periorbital hyperpigmentation. Up-regulated MITF is closely associated with increased TYR and TYRP1. These findings are essential in proposing a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of periorbital hyperpigmentation.

[Full Article]

Khan A.H., Sulaiman S.A.S., Laghari M., Hassali M.A., Muttalif A.R., Bhatti Z., Ming L.C., Talpur B.A.(2019)

Background: Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) represents about 14% of all cases of tuberculosis (TB) in Malaysia. The aims of the study include evaluation of socio-demographic factors, clinical manifestations, co-morbidities among patients with EPTB and their treatment outcomes. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to recognize the epidemiology facts of EPTB. Individual data for EPTB patients were collected from TB registers, laboratory TB registers, treatment cards and TB medical personal files into a standardized study questionnaire. Crude (COR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined to assess the risk factors for EPTB and unsuccessful treatment outcomes. Results: There were 1222 EPTB patients presenting 13.1% of all TB cases during 2006-2008. Pleural effusion and lymph node TB were the most frequent types and accounted for 45.1% of all EPTB cases among study participants. Treatment success rate was 67.6%. The best treatment completion rates were found in children ≤15 years (0.478 [0.231-1.028]; p = 0.05). On multivariate analysis, age group 56-65 years (1.658 [1.157-2.376]; p = 0.006), relapse cases (7.078 [1.585-31.613]; p = 0.010), EPTB-DM (1.773 [1.165-2.698]; p = 0.008), patients with no formal (2.266 [1.254-4.095]; p = 0.001) and secondary level of education (1.889 [1.085-3.288]; p = 0.025) were recorded as statistically positive significant risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcomes. Patients at the risk of EPTB were more likely to be females (1.524 [1.311-1.746]; p < 0.001), Malays (1.251 [1.056-1.482]; p = 0.010) and Indians (1.450 [1.142-1.842]; p = 0.002), TB-HIV (3.215 [2.347-4.405]; p < 0.001), EPDM-HIV (4.361 [1.657-11.474]; p = 0.003), EPTB-HIV-HEP (4.083 [2.785-5.987]; p < 0.001), those living in urban areas (1.272 [1.109-1.459]; p = 0.001) and no formal education (1.361 [1.018-1.820]; p = 0.037). Conclusion: The findings of this study extend the knowledge of EPTB epidemiology and highlight the need for improved EPTB detection in Malaysia, especially in subpopulations with high risk for EPTB and unsuccessful treatment outcomes. © 2019 The Author(s).

[Full Article]

Baharudin R.B., Seghayat M.S., Amini F.(2019)

Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common mortality cause among infectious diseases in Malaysia, and is one of the oldest known disease in the world. Generally, TB is uncommon among recipients of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy (HSCT) and Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT); however its infection can be highly fatal if detected late. The objective of the literature review is to identify risk factors and common presentations of Tuberculosis infection (TI) among recipients of HSCT and BMT. Literature searched was done by using different keywords from MeSH in PubMed and Google Scholar. Eligible studies that published from 2005 till 2018 in English language that investigated occurrence of Tuberculosis infection (TI) among HSCT and BMT recipients, have been included. They were appraised and analyzed based on the research questions. All recipients of HSCT reported in 15 studies that developed TI had been exposed to cytotoxic drugs/immunosuppressive drugs. Apart from being immunosuppressed due to the disease and cytotoxicity of drugs, 42% of the recipients had history of exposure to TB prior to therapy; 66.6% of them are treated for Leukemia and 67% of the infections occurred in the lungs; according to the case reports findings. Whether or not TI has certain predilection by donor factor, it is noted in the According to the one of case studies, 7/12 (58%) of TI occurred in HSCT with cell source of allo-related donors. It is noted that tuberculosis in recipients of HSCT presented in the common site of infection i.e. lungs. History of TB exposure has significant contribution to the post HSCT complication of TI. The time from HSCT to diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) infection ranged from 8 days to 270 days post transplantation. Screening program for Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) prior to therapy / transplant was not done in most instances. © 2019, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reseved.

[Full Article]

Chan E.W.C., Soon C.Y., Tan J.B.L., Wong S.K., Hui Y.W.(2019)

Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpene of the ursane type. As a common chemical constituent among species of the family Lamiaceae, UA possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. This overview focuses on the anticancer properties of UA against breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) that are most common among women and men, respectively. In vitro studies have shown that UA inhibited the growth of BC and CRC cell lines through various molecular targets and signaling pathways. There are several in vivo studies on the cytotoxic activity of UA against BC and CRC. UA also inhibits the growth of other types of cancer. Studies on structural modifications of UA have shown that the –OH groups at C3 and at C28 are critical factors influencing the cytotoxic activity of UA and its derivatives. Some needs for future research are suggested. Sources of information were from ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and PubMed. © 2019 Shanghai Changhai Hospital

[Full Article]

Farrukh M.J., Tariq M.H., Malik O., Khan T.M.(2019)

[No abstract available]

[Full Article]

Tat C.C., Parasuraman S., Khan M.K.A.A., Elamvazuthi I.(2019)

Walking aids are extensively used by elderly individuals to improve their stability and ambulatory ability. Knowledge of biomechanical and functional requirements for the effective use of walker is still limited as per the current data available. In this paper, an instrumented walker is discussed theoretically and a new system is developed using the measurement of subject's resultant arm upper extremity loads. The bilateral upper extremity kinematics and kinetics data were acquired through Visual 3D motion analysis system. The internal joint force and moment for the wrist, elbow and shoulder were determined using inverse dynamics models. These data were observed from seven healthy subjects, right handed young adults and elderly. By utilizing these experimental data, a walker support system was developed and verified the design using the same subjects through repeated experimentation. Significant changes of resultant forces were observed for walker support system implementation. Elbow joint moment was observed and found to be reduced with the implementation of support system. © 2018 IEEE.

[Full Article]

Total number of research : 22 Publications

Social Share Buttons and Icons powered by Ultimatelysocial