Research| SDG2

ZERO HUNGER: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.

Total number of research : 22 Publications

Ng C., Min C.Y., Daud D.(2019)

Nowadays, the objective of achieving customer satisfaction has become more and more important in order to maintain organization's competitive advantage within its industry. This study aims to identify the supplier's performance focuses on the service quality present provided to retailers. The independent variables for this study include reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, tangible and consistency. This study was conducted among retailers in Taman Connaught, Cheras and the interview questionnaires were distributed to 5 respondents to test the degree of satisfaction in terms of the five components of service quality and consistency. The collected data was analyzed by classified the respondents into respective groups namely "satisfied retailers" and "dissatisfied retailers". This study provides several constructive recommendations to the suppliers to improve their performance such as create a commitment, track mistakes, invest in training and development and organize quality circles. © 2019 The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.

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Chan Y.T., Tan M.C., Chin N.L.(2019)

Ultrasound treatment is widely used in food industries in order to improve the food quality. In present study, the Box-Behnken design was used to determine the optimum experimental conditions of sugar replacement with ultrasound treated pectin in both the cake batter and final cake product. The variables involved in Box-Behnken design included sonication time (5–25 min), amplitude (20–60%), and sugar replacement level with ultrasound treated pectin (10–30%) to determine the effects on batter density and consistency index, and cake density, volume, hardness and chewiness. Predicted values of parameters using model equations were in good agreement with the experimental values with R2 ≥ 0.8. The high quality of aerated cake product was obtained at optimized conditions of 10% sugar replacement with ultrasound treated pectin at 20% amplitude for 25 min. The results shown that 10% of sugar replacement with ultrasound treated pectin in batter system gave higher batter consistency index and thus produced bigger cake volume together with lower hardness and chewiness. Pectin treated with longer sonication time and higher ultrasound amplitude results in lower batter density and thus enhances the cake volume with less dense crumb structure. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

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Abu Bakar A.H., Abdullah L.C., Mohd Zahri N.A., Alkhatib M.(2019)

In this research, the adsorption potential of quaternized palm kernel shell (QPKS) to remove F- from aqueous solution was investigated using fixed-bed adsorption column. Raw palm kernel shell waste was reacted with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride (CHMAC) in order to modify the surface charge. The effects of inlet F- concentrations (2-12 mg/l) and QPKS bed height (2-10 cm) with optimum pH (pH = 3) on the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system were determined. In the fixed-bed column, breakthrough time increases with increasing bed height due to increasing amount of active site on adsorbents to adsorb the fluoride ion. Decreasing trend of breakthrough values was obtained with increasing initial fluoride concentration due to greater driving force for the transfer process to overcome the mass transfer resistance in the column. The adsorptions were fitted to three well-established fixed-bed adsorption models, namely, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Adams-Bohart models. The results fitted well to the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models with correlation coefficient, R2 ≥ 0.96. © 2019 Ayu Haslija Abu Bakar et al.

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Ee C.T., Hii C.L., Ong S.P., Law C.L., Julkifle A., Tan K.W., Tan C.H.(2019)

Kedondong (Spondias dulcis) contains polyphenols, vitamin C and carotenoids which are beneficial to human health. Fresh kedondong has short shelf life and drying is an option to preserve the fruit in dried form to avoid spoilage. In this research, kedondong slices were dried at three temperatures (60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C) using convective air and RH was fixed at 30 %. High drying temperature facilitated faster drying rate but resulted in poor product quality when compared to freeze dried samples. Drying rates were observed only occurred within falling rates period. Effective diffusivities were estimated in the order of magnitude 10-7 - 10-9 m2/s based on Fick's second law. Quality assessment showed that samples dried at 60 °C had the lowest hardness and the highest total polyphenols content was observed from samples dried at 80 °C. In addition, kedondong flavour note was found favourable from samples dried at 70 °C and 80 °C based on penalty analyses. © 2019 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.

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Abdullah Al-Sanabani D.G., Solihin M.I., Pui L.P., Astuti W., Ang C.K., Hong L.W.(2019)

Quality determines the shelf-life and selling prices of fresh mango, and therefore quality observation and control of fresh mango are of utmost significance in the processing and management of its supply chain. Mango fruit (mangifera indica) quality methods are mostly destructive in nature. Different mechanical, electromagnetic and non-destructive methods are increasingly important nowadays because of the ease of operation, speed, and reliability of the process. This project aims to develop a non-destructive assessment of mango quality using handheld micro NIR (near-infrared) spectroscopic device. NIR spectra data and Brix levels, which indicate the sugar content of the plant, i.e. indicating the sweetness of the mango, were collected from three different types of Mango (Chokanan, Rainbow, and Kai Te), resulting 80 samples (i.e. 60 samples for training and 20 samples for testing) in this project. NIR spectra can be converted mathematically to obtain quantitative information of chemical and physical nature by multivariate calibration. The spectra data is pre-processed using Gaussian smoothing and extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC) for the elimination of uncontrollable path length or scattering effects. These samples were then used to develop a predictive model using both Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression and Partial Least Squares regression (PLS) methods. The coefficient of determination (R2) obtained from SVM for training/calibration and testing dataset are 0.96 and 0.95 respectively. Meanwhile, the coefficient of determination (R2) obtained from PLS for calibration/training and testing dataset are 0.89 and 0.86 respectively. The results obtained from this project indicate that the handheld NIR has potential use for non-destructive assessment of mango fruits quality. © 2019 IOP Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Siang S.C., Wai L.K., Lin N.K., Phing P.L.(2019)

The study aimed to encapsulate Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) with the selected prebiotic, using co-extrusion technology with a poly-L-lysine (PLL) coating and evaluate probiotic survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Selection of ideal prebiotic was conducted using inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) and isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) and its optimal concentration to be incorporated in microencapsulation was determined. Microcapsules without coating (S1: no prebiotic and S3: with prebiotic) and with coating (S2: no prebiotic and S4: with prebiotic) produced were evaluated based on its physical properties and survival in simulated gastrointestinal environment. The IMO with a concentration of 3.0% (w/v) was selected due to its best effect in promoting growth of LGG after 24 h (8.63±0.07 log CFU/mL). The morphology analysis revealed that all microcapsules produced were spherical with a diameter ranging from 491.3 to 541.7 µm and microencapsulation efficiency ranged from 84.16 ±5.30% to 90.56±3.33%. The incorporation of IMO and coating with PLL improved the survival of LGG by 3% up to 52% after 2 h of incubation in simulated gastric digestion. Among all formulations, PLL coated microcapsules added with IMO was the most effective in protecting LGG during the first hour of simulated gastric digestion (6.52 log CFU/mL) with cell viability greater than the minimum recommended level of 106 CFU/mL. © Sociedade Brasileira de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, SBCTA. All rights reserved.

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Santoso N., Lin N.K.(2019)

Roselle anthocyanin has some potentials in the development of natural food colorants and as a source of antioxidant. Nevertheless, during processing or storage, some factors affects its stability and leads to the degradation. The purpose of this work is to analyze the effect of total solids content on the physico-chemical properties of freeze-dried roselle extract (FDRE) and compare the thermal stability with roselle extract under controlled temperature (80°C and 126°C) and period (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 min). Physico-chemical properties were done from the form of roselle extract, roselle pre-mix solution, and FDRE while thermal stability was done on roselle extract and FDRE following the first order of degradation kinetics. FDRE with 17%, 23%, and 28% total solids content (TSC) were prepared. Results proved that freeze-drying improved the physico-chemical properties and thermal stability of FDRE. Encapsulation efficiency represented that TSC of 28% was the best formulation among others and it affected the half-life of FDRE. At 80°C, TSC of 28% (277.26 min) had the half life 4 times longer than TSC 17% (67.96 min) while at 126°C, the half life of 28% TSC (154.03 min) was 2 times longer than 17% TSC (70.73 min). © 2019, Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication. All rights reserved.

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Defiana, Lin N.K.(2019)

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) has been broadly utilized in nourishment industry, particularly its petal part. Notwithstanding, the roselle seeds are considered as waste despite the fact that it was conceivably recognizable as cancer prevention agent sources. The point of this investigation was to decide the best parameter (term and dissolvable) for removing Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds by a beat ultrasonic-helped extraction. The cell reinforcement exercises of ultrasonic-helped Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds were assessed by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical rummaging limit test, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic corrosive) (ABTS) radical searching limit examine, ferric diminishing cancer prevention agent control (FRAP) measure, and β-carotene fading hindrance test. Add up to phenolic content (TPC) and aggregate flavonoid content (TFC) assessments were done to decide the phenolic and flavonoid substance in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds separate. The outcome displayed that the best extraction parameter utilized 80% ethanol for 10 minutes. © 2019, Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication. All rights reserved.

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Low L.-Y., Abdullah J.O., Lai K.-S., Wee C.-Y., Sekeli R., Tan C.-K., Loh J.-Y.(2019)

In vitro culture of recalcitrant indica rice cultivar through intervening callus is difficult due to long regeneration period. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the growth promoting effects of lignosulfonate (LS) on callus proliferation and shoot induction of Malaysian recalcitrant indica rice cv. MR219. LS is a by-product of wood industry, commonly used as a plant growth enhancer. Seed derived calli were proliferated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different ion-chelated LS (calcium LS: CaLS and sodium LS: NaLS) at 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/L. MS supplemented with 100 mg/L CaLS significantly increased the callus proliferation rate and adventitious root formation. In shoot induction study, both LSs did not enhance the shoot induction efficiency as compared to the control. However, the formation of albino shoot increased in MS fortified with 100 mg/L CaLS. Further chlorophyll and molecular analyses showed that, albino shoots induced from 100 mg/L CaLS had severe reduction in total chlorophyll content and expression of both chlorophyll-associated genes, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein 1 (OsCAB1R) and young seedling albino (OsYSA). Taken together, LS improves callus proliferation rate and modulate different physiological responses during plant growth of recalcitrant indica rice. © 2019 Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. All Rights Reserved.

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Wong Y.H., Goh K.M., Nyam K.L., Nehdi I.A., Sbihi H.M., Tan C.P.(2019)

The effects of selected antioxidants on the changes of the quality properties and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl ester (GE) contents in refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) palm olein during the deep-fat frying (at 180 °C) of potato chips were studied. The frying duration was 100 min in five antioxidant systems for three consecutive days. The antioxidants used were butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), oleoresin rosemary and sage extract. Both the frying oil and the oil extracted from the fried potato chips were analyzed for the 3-MCPD esters and GE content, acylglycerol composition, free fatty acid (FFA) content, p-anisidine value (p-AV), and specific extinction coefficient K232 and K268. Generally, TBHQ and oleoresin rosemary showed significantly lower levels of 3-MCPD esters and GE. The order of effectiveness of the selected antioxidants in the frying oil and fried potato chips was BHT < BHA < sage extract < oleoresin rosemary < TBHQ. Antioxidants reduce the 3-MCPD esters and GE levels by inhibiting the formation of radical intermediates. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

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Chew S.-C., Tan C.-H., Pui L.-P., Chong P.-N., Gunasekaran B., Lin N.K.(2019)

There is a growing demand for functional foods in the market with the increasing of world’s population. The main targets for this trend in consumption are foods containing plant extracts with antioxidant properties, polyunsaturated fatty acids, probiotics, vitamins and minerals. Although many of these components are unstable under normal conditions or have a residual taste, their application is limited. It is therefore necessary to use techniques which can protect the stability of these functional components, enable their application in various food matrices and enable them to be better absorbed in our gastrointestinal tract. Various sectors of the food industry have a demand for the enrichment of foods with functional compounds. This review aims at highlighting the importance and application of various encapsulating techniques of probiotics, unsaturated oils, flavours, and fruit juice. The methods and wall materials used in different encapsulation techniques would discuss in this review. Encapsulation technology is an emerging technology that can guarantee the stability of these functional ingredients and allow their application in variety of food matrices. © 2019, Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication. All rights reserved.

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Sai Y.W., Lee K.M.(2019)

Abstract: Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are new and rapid emerging green solvents that have been gaining much attention lately. In this work, DES was prepared by mixing choline chloride with lactic acid with the molar ratio of 1:10 to pretreat empty fruit bunches. The effects of pretreatment temperature, pretreatment time and solid-to-solvent ratio were investigated. A maximum reducing sugars yield of 51.1% was obtained at the operating conditions of 100 °C for 1 h with solid-to-solvent ratio of 1:10 (w/v). The reducing sugars yield obtained for DES pretreatment was higher than dilute acid, alkaline and organosolv pretreatment suggesting DES pretreatment is a promising alternative to conventional pretreatment techniques. Furthermore, there was no reducing sugar loss during DES pretreatment. The outstanding DES pretreatment performance was further confirmed by both Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that DES pretreatment was effective in altering biomass structure by disrupting the hydrogen bonding interactions within the chains of cellulose molecules and lignin extraction. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]. © 2019, Springer Nature B.V.

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Mohamed M.Y., Solihin M.I., Astuti W., Ang C.K., Zailah W.(2019)

The aim of this study is to build a classifier model based on spectra data collected using handheld spectrometer that can classify between different types of food powders (flour and starch). A total of 70 samples were prepared from three different types of flour (whole wheat, organic wheat, and rice flour) and two different types of starch (corn and tapioca starch). Handpalm size handheld spectrometer is used to record the spectrum of each sample, the spectrometer has wavelength range of 900nm to 1700nm. The spectra data is pre-processed using gaussian smoothing to filter the data from noise and unrelated information. Multivariable data analysis method as principle component analysis (PCA) is used to eliminate irrelevant data and reduce the number of variables to three principle components for easier analysis and visualization. Support vector machine (SVM) is used to build a classification model. The training/calibration of the model was done by using 80% of the dataset while the remaining 20% was for testing the model. The results show that with proper pre-processing and PCA, classification of 100% accuracy can be achieved. This study indicates the potential future application of this approach for rapid detection in food powders fraud and adulteration. © 2019 IOP Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Phan C.-W., Wang J.-K., Tan E.Y.-Y., Tan Y.-S., Sathiya Seelan J.S., Cheah S.-C., Vikineswary S.(2019)

Pleurotus giganteus (Berk.) Karunarathna & Hyde is one of the largest edible mushrooms which can be found either in groups or solitary and in soil and buried woods, but seldom in grassland. It has been recorded in Southeast Asia, Australasia, and China by either its common names or local names. Previously known as Lentinus/Panus giganteus, its unique physical characteristics and the utilization of molecular tools have since anchored its taxonomical position in the Pleurotus genus. A sawdust-based substrate coupled with soil casing method is described as a standard cultivation procedure for P. giganteus. The basidiocarp of P. giganteus is found to be rich in carbohydrates, proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polysaccharides. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. giganteus have been studied in vitro for its antioxidative, antifungal, anticancer, hepatoprotective, and neurite outgrowth capabilities. The review covers the optimum cultivation methods of P. giganteus, as well as its various biological activities and medicinal properties that have been studied by different approaches. Available data in regards to the chemical compounds present in P. giganteus are also compiled for future references. Overall, both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown significant bioactivity comparable to other recognized Pleurotoid mushrooms. © 2018, © 2018 Taylor & Francis.

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Lim W.Y., Cheun C.F., Wong C.W.(2019)

Honey, pineapple, chilli pepper, and onion extracts were investigated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in sweet potatoes. Honey had the highest inhibition (41.39%–48.0%), comparable with l-ascorbic acid. Heated onion extract increased polyphenol oxidase (PPO) inhibition by 2.5-fold when 4-methylcatechol was used as substrate. However, percentage inhibition decreased drastically (7.42%–19.67%) when heated pineapple extract was used. Fresh chilli pepper extract showed a higher PPO inhibition (45.97%) than that of heated extract. These natural inhibitors were also compared to synthetic inhibitors that ranked: l-cysteine > l-ascorbic acid > sodium chloride. l-cysteine was the most effective chemical inhibitor which inhibited up to 70.4% PPO activity. It was found that natural inhibitors extracted from common food items are able to control the enzymatic browning of sweet potato. These natural inhibitors extracts are safe to human and would also be potentially replaced chemical inhibitors for the preservation of other fruits as well as vegetables. Practical applications Fruits and vegetables are prone to enzymatic browning. This is caused by the oxidation reaction of endogenous phenolic compounds, catalyzed by PPO. PPO oxidizes o-diphenols to o-quinones, which will turn into brown pigments as the o-quinones polymerize immediately. Enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables always take places after harvest, during the post-harvest processing as well as storage. Thus, identification of suitable and acceptable inhibitors is important in order to prevent food browning and to increase the food marketability for food industry. This study indicated that sweet potato PPO was successfully inhibited by extracts from common food items such as honey, chilli pepper, pineapple, and onion which are safe for human consumption. Thus, these natural inhibitors could also be applied to similar food materials such as apples, star-fruit, and normal potatoes. We expect that the inhibitors examined in this study can be isolated and identified as lead molecules for the development of natural anti-browning food additives. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Lee K.-W., How C.W., Chen L., Chen P.T., Lan J.C.-W., Ng H.-S.(2019)

Microbial carotenoids are gaining attention because of the unsustainable supplies of natural plant sources of carotenoids. The downstream processes of the microbial carotenoids are often limited by high cost of production and multi-steps unit operation. Aqueous biphasic system (ABS) comprised of alcohol and salt is suggested as a potential approach to overcome these limitations for recovery of Gordonia terrae carotenoids in this study. Aliphatic alcohols inclusive of 1-propanol and 2-propanol and sulphate, citrate and phosphate salts were used to develop the alcohol/salt ABS to recover the microbial carotenoids. The optimum ABS for the integration of G. terrae cells disruption and simultaneous recovery of carotenoids was developed by evaluating the effects of concentration of phase-forming components, pH, amount of crude loads, concentration of additives, sonication time on the recovery yield of carotenoids. Repetitive batch-extraction of carotenoids using the optimum alcohol/salt ABS was performed to investigate the feasibility of ABS as the sustainable and consistent method for recovery of microbial carotenoids. High recovery yield of carotenoids (90.86 ± 2.97%) was obtained with 20% (w/w) 1-propanol and 20% (w/w) trisodium citrate salt of pH 9. A total of 10% (w/w) of G. terrae cells was loaded into the optimized system with the addition of 4% (w/w) of NaCl. The optimized system is suggested to perform without sonication because degradation of the carotenoids was observed with sonication applied. A total of 4 batches of ABS extraction were conducted until all carotenoids were completely extracted from the G. terrae cells. The high-water content and cost-effective one-step ABS allows the process integration of extraction and separation of carotenoids from G. terrae fermentation. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

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Wong S.T., Tan M.C., Geow C.H.(2019)

In this study, ethanol was used as a polar solvent to extract hazelnut oil, with ultrasound aid in the first 15 min of extraction. A Box–Behnken design was used for optimization in term of ultrasound amplitude (30%, 60%, and 90%), extraction temperature (28, 38, and 48°C), and extraction time (30, 60, and 90 min). All three factors showed positive effects on the oil extraction. The results showed that the oil yield and quality of extracted oil were significantly affected by the application of ultrasound. Ultrasound treatment had increased the oil yield from 38.93% up to 79.88%. The optimum conditions were identified at 90% of ultrasound amplitude, 29°C of extraction temperature, and 51 min of extraction time. Under these conditions, the predicted maximum oil yield was 55.39% with the minimum FFA value, iodine value and peroxide value of 1.75%, 14.52 g/100 g, and 10.50 meq g O2/kg, respectively. Practical applications: Plant oil has become the first choice for edible oil due to large percentage of unsaturated fatty acid, which has been reported that it could help to reduce the bad cholesterol in human body. Hexane is the solvent that commonly used in solvent extraction stage but it is highly volatile and might cause safety issue for extraction plant. Therefore, this study aims to use ethanol to replace hexane. This research introduces the optimized ultrasound-assisted ethanol solvent extraction process to the manufacturer. Ultrasound could enhance the oil yield which can produce low-cost hazelnut oil to the consumer. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Yap W.L., Ng C.M., Kaur S.(2019)

This study aimed to determine the differences in dietary intake and quality between normalweight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) young adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A case-control study was conducted among 294 private universities students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Respondents completed a set of questionnaire and 3 days 24-hr dietary recall. Weight, height, body fat percentage (%BF), visceral fat, and waist circumference of respondents were measured. Dietary intake of respondents was analyzed and their diet quality was evaluated using a healthy eating index (HEI) scale. Findings displayed OW/OB group had significantly higher energy, macronutrient, sugar, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intake (p < 0.001) than NW group. The total HEI score was signi.cantly lower in OW/OB group [45.14 (11.13)] than NW group [51.43 (11.61)]. This was affected by component scores of percentages (%) of energy from fat (p < 0.001) and saturated fat (p = 0.023), cholesterol and sodium intake (p < 0.001) with OW/OB had significantly lower score than NW group. However, OW/OB group achieved a significantly higher component score for cereals (p < 0.001) and meat food groups (p = 0.005) than NW group. HEI analysis also displayed both groups achieved low component scores for fruits, vegetables, milk, and food variety. Although OW/OB group had poorer diet quality than NW group, both groups had low consumption of fruits, vegetables, milk, and less varied diet. Therefore, there is a need for educational campaigns on food groups' diversification especially in increasing nutrient-dense food in their diet to increase awareness in healthy eating among young adults. © 2019 Universiti Putra Malaysia. All rights reserved.

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Rohani R., Chung Y.T., Mohamad I.N.(2019)

Fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) produces biohydrogen in a mixture at a specific set condition. This research was conducted to purify the produced mixed biohydrogen via absorption and membrane techniques. Three different solvents, methyl ethanolamine (MEA), ammonia (NH3) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions, were used in absorption technique. The highest H2 purity was found using 1M MEA solution with 5.0 ml/s feed mixed gas flow rate at 60 minutes absorption time. Meanwhile, the purified biohydrogen using a polysulfone membrane had the highest H2 purity at 2~3 bar operating pressure. Upon testing with proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), the highest current and power produced at 100% H2 were 1.66 A and 8.1 W, while the lowest were produced at 50/50 vol% H2/CO2 (0.32 A and 0.49 W). These results proved that both purification techniques have significant potential for H2 purification efficiency. © 2019 Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers. All rights reserved.

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Chew S.-C., Tan C.P., Lin N.K.(2019)

In accelerated stockpiling at 65 o C for 24 days, an oxidative stability test was performed on crudes and re-fined kenaf seed oil. The outcomes revealed which refined oil underwent higher oxidation than the crude oil, as indicated by the peroxide value (40.55 meq/kg), p-Anisidine value (18.78) and total oxidation value (99.87) in re-fined oils at day 24. A free fatty acid value in the refined oil did not differ significantly and remained less than 1% during accelerated storage. After accelerated storage, the phenolic substance and anti-oxidant movement of re-fined oil was altogether lesser than crude oil. During accelerated storage, refined oil decreased by 67% tocopherol substance and 12.1 % phytosterol substance. After storage, there was no huge contrast in a content of tocopherol and phytosterol for crude and re-fined oils. The rate of tocopherol and phytosterol degradation in re-fined oil during storage was lesser than in unrefined petroleum (crude oil). Unsaturated fatty acids decreased slightly during storage, together with a slight increase in saturated fats in kenaf seed oil. The refining process reduced the oxidative steadiness of kenaf seed oil, but the refined oil could able to maintain good quality in the estimation of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) and a composition of fatty acid, and to protect tocopherols and phytosterols. © 2019, Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication. All rights reserved.

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Wong Y.H., Goh K.M., Abas F., Maulidiani M., Nyam K.L., Nehdi I.A., Sbihi H.M., Gewik M.M., Tan C.P.(2019)

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was studied as an alternative technique for the estimation of the 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) ester level in palm olein. The samples were the frying oils of potato chips with the addition of a synthetic or natural antioxidant. The same samples were evaluated by both the conventional method (GC-MS) and FTIR. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to group the frying oils according to the level of the 3-MCPD esters. The results obtained by FTIR were consistent with the findings using an indirect determination method by GC-MS. Chemometric analysis was applied to correlate the content of 3-MCPD esters with the FTIR spectrum data. A partial least squares (PLS) model was able to predict the concentrations of 3-MCPD esters at the 95% confidence level with R2 values higher than 0.90. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

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Chin D.W.K., Lim S., Pang Y.L., Lim C.H., Lee K.M.(2019)

Ethylene glycol in the presence of sodium hydroxide was utilised as pretreatment for effective delignification and reduced the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass which ramified the exposure of cellulose. Two-staged acid hydrolysis was also investigated which demonstrated its synergistic efficiency by minimising the deficiency of single stage acid hydrolysis. The operating parameters including acid concentration, temperature, residence time and cellulose loading for two-staged acid hydrolysis were studied by using ethylene glycol delignified degraded oil palm empty fruit bunch (DEFB) to recover the sugar based substrates for potential biofuels and other bio-chemicals production. In this study, stage I 45 wt% acid at 65 °C for 30 min coupled with high cellulose loading 21.25 w/v% and 12 wt% acid at 100 °C for 120 min was able to release a total of 89.8% optimum sugar yield with minimal formation of degradation products including 0.058 g/L furfural, 0.0251 g/L hydroxymethylfurfural and 0.200 g/L phenolic compounds. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

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